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Pre-natal exposures and breast tissue composition: findings from a British pre-birth cohort of young women and a systematic review

Background Breast density, the amount of fibroglandular tissue in the adult breast for a women’s age and body mass index, is a strong biomarker of susceptibility to breast cancer, which may, like breast cancer risk itself, be influenced by events early in life. In the present study, we investigated the association between pre-natal exposures and breast tissue composition. Methods A ...

Prenatal Influences on Size, Velocity and Tempo of Infant Growth: Findings from Three Contemporary Cohorts

Background Studying prenatal influences of early life growth is relevant to life-course epidemiology as some of its features have been linked to the onset of later diseases. Methods We studied the association between prenatal maternal characteristics (height, age, parity, education, pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI), smoking, gestational diabetes and hypertension) and offspring ...

Effect of the Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (MGNREGA) on Malnutrition of Infants in Rajasthan, India: A Mixed Methods Study

Objectives Analyse the effect of the Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (MGNREGA), a wage-for-employment policy of the Indian Government, on infant malnutrition and delineate the pathways through which MGNREGA affects infant malnutrition. Hypothesis: MGNREGA could reduce infant malnutrition through positive effects on household food security and infant feeding. ...

Birth Size and Breast Cancer Risk: Re-analysis of Individual Participant Data from 32 Studies

Isobel dos Santos Silva and Bianca De Stavola and colleagues reanalyzed individual participant data from 32 published and unpublished studies to obtain precise estimates of the association between ... Language Abstract S1. Italian Translation of the Abstract by Bianca De Stavola Found at doi:10.1371/journal.pmed.0050193.sd001 (25 KB DOC). Alternative Language Abstract S2. Portuguese Translation of the

Dietary Intake and Rural-Urban Migration in India: A Cross-Sectional Study

Background Migration from rural areas of India contributes to urbanisation and lifestyle change, and dietary changes may increase the risk of obesity and chronic diseases. We tested the hypothesis that rural-to-urban migrants have different macronutrient and food group intake to rural non-migrants, and that migrants have a diet more similar to urban non-migrants. Methods and ...

Socio-demographic Predictors of Dimensions of the AUDIT Score in A Population Sample of Working-age Men in Izhevsk, Russia

Aims: To investigate the relationship between socio-demographic factors and alcohol drinking patterns identified through a formal analysis of the factor structure of the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) score in a population sample of working-age men in Russia. Methods: In 2008–2009, a sample of 1005 men aged 25–59 years living in Izhevsk, Russia were interviewed ...

Do Common Mental Disorders Increase Cigarette Smoking? Results from Five Waves of a Population-based Panel Cohort Study

A prospective panel cohort design was used to investigate whether mental disorders common in the general population increase the likelihood of increased cigarette smoking at 12 months follow-up. By 1995, the last year for which data were available, a random sample of 12,057 persons aged 16–75 years residing in private households in Great Britain had been recruited. At each of five ...

Life-Course Analysis of a Fat Mass and Obesity-Associated (FTO) Gene Variant and Body Mass Index in the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966 Using Structural Equation Modeling

Statistics Unit, Department of Epidemiology and Population Health, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom (Bianca De Stavola). This work was supported by the Academy of Finland

The effect of reproductive history on future pregnancy outcomes

The aim of this study was to examine the separate and joint effects of previous pregnancy history, year of pregnancy outcome, maternal age, height, smoking and fertility on risk of fetal death. Data were available from a study of female radiographers. Analyses were carried out on 3053 women with a total of 6993 pregnancies. Women reporting problems with conception or previous fetal ...