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Climate change-induced hazards and local adaptations in agriculture: a study from Koshi River Basin, Nepal

Changes in climate, associated hazards, local adaptations in agriculture, and socioeconomic factors affecting adaptation were investigated using data from a large survey of 2310 households (HHs) in the Koshi River Basin (KRB), Nepal. More than 80% of HHs had perceived changes in climate in the 10 years preceding the survey, and 20–40% had perceived increases in the occurrence of...

Household food security in the face of climate change in the Hindu-Kush Himalayan region

: Room to Read , New Delhi , India 1 Abid Hussain 2 Dr. Bidhubhusan Mahapatra was working as Survey Research Specialist at the International Centre for Integrated Mountain D e v e l o p m e n t ( I C I M O

Multidimensional poverty and catastrophic health spending in the mountainous regions of Myanmar, Nepal and India

Background Economic burden to households due to out-of-pocket expenditure (OOPE) is large in many Asian countries. Though studies suggest increasing household poverty due to high OOPE in developing countries, studies on association of multidimensional poverty and household health spending is limited. This paper tests the hypothesis that the multidimensionally poor are more likely...

Exposure to Pornographic Videos and Its Effect on HIV-Related Sexual Risk Behaviours among Male Migrant Workers in Southern India

Objective Research on pornography and its association with HIV-related sexual behaviours is limited in India. This study aims to examine the prevalence and correlates of viewing pornographic videos and examine its associations with HIV-related sexual risk behaviours among male migrant workers in India. Methods Data were drawn from a cross-sectional survey conducted in 2007–08...

Non-Disclosure of Violence among Female Sex Workers: Evidence from a Large Scale Cross-Sectional Survey in India

Objective One of the indicators critical to the success of violence reduction programmes among female sex workers (FSWs) is the pattern of disclosure of violence. This study examines the rate of non-disclosure of violence among FSWs in India by perpetrators of violence and programme exposure. Methods Data were drawn from a cross-sectional study conducted among FSWs in 2009 across...

Non-paying partnerships and its association with HIV risk behavior, program exposure and service utilization among female sex workers in India

Background In India, HIV prevention programs have focused on female sex workers’ (FSWs’) sexual practices vis-à-vis commercial partners leading to important gains in HIV prevention. However, it has become apparent that further progress is contingent on a better understanding of FSWs’ sexual risks in the context of their relationships with non-paying partners. In this paper, we...

Are Female Sex Workers Able to Negotiate Condom Use with Male Clients? The Case of Mobile FSWs in Four High HIV Prevalence States of India

Introduction Condom promotion among female sex workers (FSWs) is a key intervention in India’s National AIDS Control Program. However, there is limited understanding of how FSWs negotiate condom use with male clients, particularly in the context of their mobility for sex work. The objective of this study is to examine the factors associated with the mobile FSWs’ ability to refuse...

Evaluating the McDonald's business model for HIV prevention among truckers to improve program coverage and service utilization in India, 2004–2010

Evaluating the McDonald's business model for HIV prevention among truckers to improve program coverage and service utilization in India, 2004–2010 Vasudha Tirumalasetti Rao,1 Bidhubhusan Mahapatra,2

Relationship between mobility, violence and HIV/STI among female sex workers in Andhra Pradesh, India

Background Violence and mobility have been identified as critical factors contributing to the spread of HIV worldwide. This study aimed to assess the independent and combined associations of mobility and violence with sexual risk behaviors and HIV, STI prevalence among female sex workers (FSWs) in India. Methods Data were drawn from a cross-sectional, bio-behavioral survey...

Male Out-Migration: A Factor for the Spread of HIV Infection among Married Men and Women in Rural India

Introduction Thus far, the reasons for increasing HIV prevalence in northern and eastern Indian states are unknown. We investigated the role of male out-migration in the spread of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection through a case-control study in rural India. Methods Currently married men and women were recruited from HIV testing and treatment centers across seven...

Adherence to Antiretroviral Therapy and Its Effect on Survival of HIV-Infected Individuals in Jharkhand, India

Introduction Research in India has extensively examined the factors associated with non-adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) with limited focus on examining the relationship between adherence to ART regimen and survival status of HIV infected patients. This study examines the effect of optimal adherence to ART on survival status of HIV infected patients attending ART centers...

Male migration and risky sexual behavior in rural India: is the place of origin critical for HIV prevention programs?

Background Recent studies of male migrants in India indicate that those who are infected with HIV are spreading the epidemic from high risk populations in high prevalence areas to populations in low prevalence areas. In this context, migrant men are believed to initiate and have risky sexual behaviors in places of destination and not in places of origin. The paucity of...

The association between adolescent entry into the trucking industry and risk of HIV among long-distance truck drivers in India

,3 Bidhubhusan Mahapatra,1 Sowmya Ramesh11Population Council, New Delhi, 2Department of Statistics, Maharshi Dayanand University, Rohtak, Haryana, 3National Institute of Medical Statistics, Indian

Factors Associated with Risky Sexual Practices among Female Sex Workers in Karnataka, India

Introduction The objectives of this study are to develop a summary measure of risky sexual practice and examine the factors associated with this among female sex workers (FSWs) in Karnataka, India. Materials and Methods Data were drawn from special behavioral surveys (SBS) conducted in 2007 among 577 FSWs in two districts of Karnataka, India: Belgaum and Bangalore. FSWs were...

Relationship between reported prior condom use and current self-perceived risk of acquiring HIV among mobile female sex workers in southern India

Background With the evolution of Health Belief Model, risk perception has been identified as one of several core components of public health interventions. While female sex workers (FSWs) in India continue to be at most risk of acquiring and transmitting HIV, little is known about their perception towards risk of acquiring HIV and how this perception depends upon their history of...