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Mechanisms and Model Diversity of Trade-Wind Shallow Cumulus Cloud Feedbacks: A Review

Shallow cumulus clouds in the trade-wind regions are at the heart of the long standing uncertainty in climate sensitivity estimates. In current climate models, cloud feedbacks are strongly influenced by cloud-base cloud amount in the trades. Therefore, understanding the key factors controlling cloudiness near cloud-base in shallow convective regimes has emerged as an important ...

Structure and Dynamical Influence of Water Vapor in the Lower Tropical Troposphere

In situ, airborne and satellite measurements are used to characterize the structure of water vapor in the lower tropical troposphere—below the height, \(z_*,\) of the triple-point isotherm, \(T_*.\) The measurements are evaluated in light of understanding of how lower-tropospheric water vapor influences clouds, convection and circulation, through both radiative and thermodynamic ...

Observing and Modeling Earth’s Energy Flows

Bjorn Stevens 0 Stephen E. Schwartz 0 0 S. E. Schwartz Atmospheric Sciences Division, Brookhaven National Laboratory , Upton, NY 11973, USA This article reviews, from the authors' perspective