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Recurrent de novo mutations in neurodevelopmental disorders: properties and clinical implications

Next-generation sequencing (NGS) is now more accessible to clinicians and researchers. As a result, our understanding of the genetics of neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs) has rapidly advanced over the past few years. NGS has led to the discovery of new NDD genes with an excess of recurrent de novo mutations (DNMs) when compared to controls. Development of large-scale databases...

FACADE: a fast and sensitive algorithm for the segmentation and calling of high resolution array CGH data

The availability of high resolution array comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) platforms has led to increasing complexities in data analysis. Specifically, defining contiguous regions of alterations or segmentation can be computationally intensive and popular algorithms can take hours to days for the processing of arrays comprised of hundreds of thousands to millions of...

Germline DNA Copy Number Aberrations Identified as Potential Prognostic Factors for Breast Cancer Recurrence

Breast cancer recurrence (BCR) is a common treatment outcome despite curative-intent primary treatment of non-metastatic breast cancer. Currently used prognostic and predictive factors utilize tumor-based markers, and are not optimal determinants of risk of BCR. Germline-based copy number aberrations (CNAs) have not been evaluated as determinants of predisposition to experience...

Genomic Deregulation of the E2F/Rb Pathway Leads to Activation of the Oncogene EZH2 in Small Cell Lung Cancer

Small cell lung cancer (SCLC) is a highly aggressive lung neoplasm with extremely poor clinical outcomes and no approved targeted treatments. To elucidate the mechanisms responsible for driving the SCLC phenotype in hopes of revealing novel therapeutic targets, we studied copy number and methylation profiles of SCLC. We found disruption of the E2F/Rb pathway was a prominent...

An integrative multi-dimensional genetic and epigenetic strategy to identify aberrant genes and pathways in cancer

Background Genomics has substantially changed our approach to cancer research. Gene expression profiling, for example, has been utilized to delineate subtypes of cancer, and facilitated derivation of predictive and prognostic signatures. The emergence of technologies for the high resolution and genome-wide description of genetic and epigenetic features has enabled the...

MD-SeeGH: a platform for integrative analysis of multi-dimensional genomic data

Background Recent advances in global genomic profiling methodologies have enabled multi-dimensional characterization of biological systems. Complete analysis of these genomic profiles require an in depth look at parallel profiles of segmental DNA copy number status, DNA methylation state, single nucleotide polymorphisms, as well as gene expression profiles. Due to the differences...

Relative Burden of Large CNVs on a Range of Neurodevelopmental Phenotypes

While numerous studies have implicated copy number variants (CNVs) in a range of neurological phenotypes, the impact relative to disease severity has been difficult to ascertain due to small sample sizes, lack of phenotypic details, and heterogeneity in platforms used for discovery. Using a customized microarray enriched for genomic hotspots, we assayed for large CNVs among 1,227...

Transcriptome Profiles of Carcinoma-in-Situ and Invasive Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer as Revealed by SAGE

Background Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) presents as a progressive disease spanning precancerous, preinvasive, locally invasive, and metastatic lesions. Identification of biological pathways reflective of these progressive stages, and aberrantly expressed genes associated with these pathways, would conceivably enhance therapeutic approaches to this devastating disease...

Comparison of genome-wide array genomic hybridization platforms for the detection of copy number variants in idiopathic mental retardation

Tracy Tucker 0 Alexandre Montpetit David Chai Susanna Chan Sbastien Chnier Bradley P Coe Allen Delaney Patrice Eydoux Wan L Lam Sylvie Langlois Emmanuelle Lemyre Marco Marra Hong Qian Guy A Rouleau

Divergent Genomic and Epigenomic Landscapes of Lung Cancer Subtypes Underscore the Selection of Different Oncogenic Pathways during Tumor Development

For therapeutic purposes, non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) has traditionally been regarded as a single disease. However, recent evidence suggest that the two major subtypes of NSCLC, adenocarcinoma (AC) and squamous cell carcinoma (SqCC) respond differently to both molecular targeted and new generation chemotherapies. Therefore, identifying the molecular differences between...

A sequence-based approach to identify reference genes for gene expression analysis

Background An important consideration when analyzing both microarray and quantitative PCR expression data is the selection of appropriate genes as endogenous controls or reference genes. This step is especially critical when identifying genes differentially expressed between datasets. Moreover, reference genes suitable in one context (e.g. lung cancer) may not be suitable in...

SIGMA2: A system for the integrative genomic multi-dimensional analysis of cancer genomes, epigenomes, and transcriptomes

Background High throughput microarray technologies have afforded the investigation of genomes, epigenomes, and transcriptomes at unprecedented resolution. However, software packages to handle, analyze, and visualize data from these multiple 'omics disciplines have not been adequately developed. Results Here, we present SIGMA2, a system for the integrative genomic multi...

Large fragment Bst DNA polymerase for whole genome amplification of DNA from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues

Background Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues represent the largest source of archival biological material available for genomic studies of human cancer. Therefore, it is desirable to develop methods that enable whole genome amplification (WGA) using DNA extracted from FFPE tissues. Multiple-strand Displacement Amplification (MDA) is an isothermal method for WGA that...

SeeGH – A software tool for visualization of whole genome array comparative genomic hybridization data

Background Array comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) is a technique which detects copy number differences in DNA segments. Complete sequencing of the human genome and the development of an array representing a tiling set of tens of thousands of DNA segments spanning the entire human genome has made high resolution copy number analysis throughout the genome possible. Since...

SIGMA: A System for Integrative Genomic Microarray Analysis of Cancer Genomes

Background The prevalence of high resolution profiling of genomes has created a need for the integrative analysis of information generated from multiple methodologies and platforms. Although the majority of data in the public domain are gene expression profiles, and expression analysis software are available, the increase of array CGH studies has enabled integration of high...

Integrative Genomic Analyses Identify BRF2 as a Novel Lineage-Specific Oncogene in Lung Squamous Cell Carcinoma

William Lockwood and colleagues show that the focal amplification of a gene, BRF2, on Chromosome 8p12 plays a key role in squamous cell carcinoma of the lung.