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Search: authors:"Brett S. Lowe"

8 papers found.
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Risk factors for community-acquired pneumonia among adults in Kenya: a case–control study

Background Pneumonia is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality among adults worldwide; however, the risk factors for community-acquired pneumonia in Africa are not well characterized. Methods The authors recruited 281 cases of community-acquired pneumonia and 1202 hospital controls among patients aged ≥15 years who attended Kilifi District Hospital/Coast Provincial General...

Clinical indicators of bacterial meningitis among neonates and young infants in rural Kenya

Background Meningitis is notoriously difficult to diagnose in infancy because its clinical features are non-specific. World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines suggest several indicative signs, based on limited data. We aimed to identify indicators of bacterial meningitis in young infants in Kenya, and compared their performance to the WHO guidelines. We also examined the...

Transmission-Dependent Tolerance to Multiclonal Plasmodium falciparum Infection

Whether the number of concurrent clones in asymptomatic Plasmodium falciparum infections reflects the degree of host protection was investigated in children living in areas with different levels of transmission on the coast of Kenya. The number of concurrent clones was determined on the basis of polymorphism in msp2, which encodes the vaccine candidate antigen merozoite surface...

HIV Infection, Malnutrition, and Invasive Bacterial Infection among Children with Severe Malaria

Background. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, malnutrition, and invasive bacterial infection (IBI) are reported among children with severe malaria. However, it is unclear whether their cooccurrence with falciparum parasitization and severe disease happens by chance or by association among children in areas where malaria is endemic. Methods. We examined 3068...

Safety Profile of the Viral Vectors of Attenuated Fowlpox Strain FP9 and Modified Vaccinia Virus Ankara Recombinant for Either of 2 Preerythrocytic Malaria Antigens, ME-TRAP or the Circumsporozoite Protein, in Children and Adults in Kenya

Background. We are developing a heterologous prime-boost vaccine strategy against malaria. This approach uses sequential immunization with different vectors to deliver a common preerythrocytic malaria antigen. Preliminary evidence of efficacy and safety has been previously documented in studies from an area where malaria is nonendemic. Additional safety data from an area where...

B Cell Memory to 3 Plasmodium falciparum Blood-Stage Antigens in a Malaria-Endemic Area

To gain insight into why antibody responses to malarial antigens tend to be short lived, we studied antigenspecific memory B cells from donors in an area where malaria is endemic.We compared antibody and memory B cell responses to tetanus toxoid with those to 3 Plasmodium falciparum candidate vaccine antigens: the Cterminal portion of merozoite surface protein 1 (MSP119), apical...

Defining Childhood Severe Falciparum Malaria for Intervention Studies

Background Clinical trials of interventions designed to prevent severe falciparum malaria in children require a clear endpoint. The internationally accepted definition of severe malaria is sensitive, and appropriate for clinical purposes. However, this definition includes individuals with severe nonmalarial disease and coincident parasitaemia, so may lack specificity in vaccine...

Plasmodium falciparum Infections Are Associated with Agglutinating Antibodies to Parasite-Infected Erythrocyte Surface Antigens among Healthy Kenyan Children

Antibodies to the highly diverse variant surface antigens (VSAs) expressed on Plasmodium falciparum- infected erythrocytes are thought to play a role in the development of naturally acquired immunity to malaria. It has been suggested that children gradually acquire immunity through the piecemeal acquisition of antibodies to a large number of VSAs over several years of exposure...