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Development and virucidal activity of a novel alcohol-based hand disinfectant supplemented with urea and citric acid

Background Hand disinfectants are important for the prevention of virus transmission in the health care system and environment. The development of broad antiviral spectrum hand disinfectants with activity against enveloped and non-enveloped viruses is limited due to a small number of permissible active ingredients able to inactivate viruses. Methods A new hand disinfectant was...

Virucidal activity of Formulation I of the World Health Organization's alcohol-based handrubs: impact of changes in key ingredient levels and test parameters

Background A recently modified World Health Organization (WHO) Formulation I was examined as 80% and 97% solutions against poliovirus type 1, adenovirus type 5 and murine norovirus according to the new European Norm prEN 14476:2011. In a previous study the unmodified WHO Formulation I had failed to demonstrate a sufficient activity against poliovirus type 1 according to the...

How Stable Is the Hepatitis C Virus (HCV)? Environmental Stability of HCV and Its Susceptibility to Chemical Biocides

Background. In the absence of a cell culture system for propagation of the hepatitis C virus (HCV), the antiviral activity of disinfectants against HCV was extrapolated from studies with the bovine viral diarrhea virus. The recent development of an HCV infection system allowed the direct assessment of environmental stability and susceptibility to chemical disinfectants. Methods...

Inactivation of murine norovirus by chemical biocides on stainless steel

Background Human norovirus (NoV) causes more than 80% of nonbacterial gastroenteritis in Europe and the United States. NoV transmission via contaminated surfaces may be significant for the spread of viruses. Therefore, measures for prevention and control, such as surface disinfection, are necessary to interrupt the dissemination of human NoV. Murine norovirus (MNV) as a surrogate...