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Epidemiology of Sarcopenia: Determinants Throughout the Lifecourse

Sarcopenia is an age-related syndrome characterised by progressive and generalised loss of skeletal muscle mass and strength; it is a major contributor to the risk of physical frailty, functional impairment in older people, poor health-related quality of life and premature death. Many different definitions have been used to describe sarcopenia and have resulted in varying estimates ...

Recent hip fracture trends in Sweden and Denmark with age-period-cohort effects

Summary This study used nationwide hip fracture data from Denmark and Sweden during 1987–2010 to examine effects of (birth) cohort and period. We found that time trends, cohort, and period effects were different in the two countries. Results also indicated that hip fracture rates may increase in the not so far future. Introduction The reasons for the downturn in hip fracture rates ...

UK clinical guideline for the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis

50 years in the UK . Maturitas 62 : 105 - 108 4. Compston J , Bowring C , Cooper A , Cooper C , Davies C , Francis R , Kanis JA , Marsh D , McCloskey EV , Reid DM , Selby P , National Osteoporosis

Nutrition and physical activity in the prevention and treatment of sarcopenia: systematic review

Summary This systematic review summarizes the effect of combined exercise and nutrition intervention on muscle mass and muscle function. A total of 37 RCTs were identified. Results indicate that physical exercise has a positive impact on muscle mass and muscle function in subjects aged 65 years and older. However, any interactive effect of dietary supplementation appears to be ...

Physical activity and osteoarthritis: a consensus study to harmonise self-reporting methods of physical activity across international cohorts

for Sport, Exercise and Osteoarthritis (Grant Ref. 20194). Conflict of interest B Ainsworth receives royalties from Taylor & Francis. C Cooper has received consultancy from Servier, Amgen, Novartis, Eli

Translating an early childhood obesity prevention program for local community implementation: a case study of the Melbourne InFANT Program

Background While there is a growing interest in the field of research translation, there are few published examples of public health interventions that have been effectively scaled up and implemented in the community. This paper provides a case study of the community-wide implementation of the Melbourne Infant, Feeding, Activity and Nutrition Trial (InFANT), an obesity prevention ...

The RUDY study platform – a novel approach to patient driven research in rare musculoskeletal diseases

Background Research into rare diseases is becoming more common, with recognition of the significant diagnostic and therapeutic care gaps. Registries are considered a key research methodology to address rare diseases. This report describes the structure of the Rare UK Diseases Study (RUDY) platform that aims to improve research processes and address many of the challenges of ...

A novel accelerometer-based method to describe day-to-day exposure to potentially osteogenic vertical impacts in older adults: findings from a multi-cohort study

Summary This observational study assessed vertical impacts experienced in older adults as part of their day-to-day physical activity using accelerometry and questionnaire data. Population-based older adults experienced very limited high-impact activity. The accelerometry method utilised appeared to be valid based on comparisons between different cohorts and with self-reported ...

A longitudinal cohort study of HIV ‘treatment as prevention’ in gay, bisexual and other men who have sex with men: the Treatment with Antiretrovirals and their Impact on Positive And Negative men (TAIPAN) study protocol

Background Australia has increased coverage of antiretroviral treatment (ART) over the past decade, reaching 73% uptake in 2014. While ART reduces AIDS-related deaths, accumulating evidence suggests that it could also bolster prevention efforts by reducing the risk of HIV transmission (‘treatment as prevention’). While promising, evidence of community-level impact of treatment as ...

Secondary prevention of fractures after hip fracture: a qualitative study of effective service delivery

Summary There is variation in how services to prevent secondary fractures after hip fracture are delivered and no consensus on best models of care. This study identifies healthcare professionals’ views on effective care for the prevention of these fractures. It is hoped this will provide information on how to develop services. Introduction Hip fracture patients are at high risk of ...

Skeletal muscle morphology in sarcopenia defined using the EWGSOP criteria: findings from the Hertfordshire Sarcopenia Study (HSS)

Background Sarcopenia is defined as the loss of muscle mass and function with age and is associated with decline in mobility, frailty, falls and mortality. There is considerable interest in understanding the underlying mechanisms. Our aim was to characterise muscle morphology changes associated with sarcopenia among community dwelling older men. Methods One hundred and five men ...

Life-course approach to nutrition

Alliance ( 2014 ) Fracture Prevention Central . http://www.nbha.org/fpc Accessed 8 Jun 2015 Akesson K, Marsh D , Mitchell PJ , McLellan AR , Stenmark J , Pierroz DD , Kyer C , Cooper C , Group IOFFW ( 2013

Real-world effectiveness of peginterferon α-2b plus ribavirin in a Canadian cohort of treatment-naïve chronic hepatitis C patients with genotypes 2 or 3: results of the PoWer and RediPEN studies

The purpose of this investigation was to assess the real-life effectiveness of pegylated interferon (peg-IFN) α-2b with ribavirin (RBV) in a cohort of treatment-naïve patients with chronic genotypes 2 (G2) or 3 (G3) hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. A post-hoc pooled analysis of two Canadian multicenter, observational studies, RediPEN and PoWer, was carried out. A total of 1242 ...

Non-invasive Assessment of Lower Limb Geometry and Strength Using Hip Structural Analysis and Peripheral Quantitative Computed Tomography: A Population-Based Comparison

. J. Denison, K. A. Jameson, M. H. Edwards, A. A. Sayer, P. Taylor, C. Cooper, E. M. Dennison) declare no conflict of interest Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent Ethical permission for the

The Role of the Posterior Temporal and Medial Prefrontal Cortices in Mediating Learning from Romantic Interest and Rejection

Romantic interest or rejection can be powerful incentives not merely for their emotional impact, but for their potential to transform, in a single interaction, what we think we know about another person—or ourselves. Little is known, though, about how the brain computes expectations for, and learns from, real-world romantic signals. In a novel “speed-dating” paradigm, we had ...

Impact of hip fracture on hospital care costs: a population-based study

fractures in postmenopausal women . NICE technology appraisal guidance TA161 . https://www.nice.org.uk/guidance/ta161 31. Åkesson K , Marsh D , Mitchell PJ , McLellan AR , Stenmark J , Pierroz DD , Kyer C ... , Cooper C ( 2013 ) Capture the fracture: a best practice framework and global campaign to break the fragility fracture cycle . Osteoporos Int 24 : 2135 - 2152 32. Abrahamsen B , van Staa T , Ariely R

Ischaemic cardiac events and use of strontium ranelate in postmenopausal osteoporosis: a nested case–control study in the CPRD

Summary We explored the cardiac safety of the osteoporosis treatment strontium ranelate in the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink. While known cardiovascular risk factors like obesity and smoking were associated with increased cardiac risk, use of strontium ranelate was not associated with any increase in myocardial infarction or cardiovascular death. Introduction It has been ...

The unfolded protein response is required for dendrite morphogenesis

Taylor, Roshni C Cooper, Kang Shen Xing Wei, Audrey S Howell, Xintong Dong, Caitlin A Taylor, Roshni C Cooper, Kang Shen The funders had no role in study design, data collection and interpretation, or the ... . ImageProcessing.py: the python code for image processing and data analysis. DOI: 10.7554/eLife.06963.025 5R01NS082208-02 Xing Wei, Audrey S Howell, Xintong Dong , Caitlin A Taylor, Roshni C Cooper, Kang Shen Arakawa

Effect of Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass Surgery on Bile Acid Metabolism in Normal and Obese Diabetic Rats

In addition to classic functions of facilitating hepatobiliary secretion and intestinal absorption of lipophilic nutrients, bile acids (BA) are also endocrine factors and regulate glucose and lipid metabolism. Recent data indicate that antiobesity bariatric procedures e.g. Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery (RYGB), which also remit diabetes, increase plasma BAs in humans, leading to ...

A comprehensive fracture prevention strategy in older adults: the European Union Geriatric Medicine Society (EUGMS) statement

Prevention of fragility fractures in older people has become a public health priority, although the most appropriate and cost-effective strategy remains unclear. In the present statement, the Interest Group on Falls and Fracture Prevention of the European Union Geriatric Medicine Society, in collaboration with the International Association of Gerontology and Geriatrics for the ...