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Montagu’s Harrier breeding parameters in relation to weather, colony size and nest protection schemes: a long-term study in Extremadura, Spain

On the basis of long-term (2001–2017) and extensive data (> 1700 breeding attempts), we assess factors influencing breeding parameters in Montagu’s Harrier (Circus pygargus), a medium-sized ground-nesting semi-colonial raptor breeding in cereal fields, in a study area in its core distribution range (Extremadura, Spain). We evaluated annual and long-term variation in breeding...

Take time: odor coding capacity across sensory neurons increases over time in Drosophila

Due to the highly efficient olfactory code, olfactory sensory systems are able to reliably encode enormous numbers of olfactory stimuli. The olfactory code consists of combinatorial activation patterns across sensory neurons, thus its capacity exceeds the number of involved classes of sensory neurons by a manifold. Activation patterns are not static but vary over time, caused by...

Normalizing brain activity across individuals using functional reference mapping

Neural activity can be mapped across individuals using brain atlases, but when spatial relationships are not equal, these techniques collapse. We map activity across individuals using functional registration, based on physiological responses to predetermined reference stimuli. Data from several individuals are integrated into a common multidimensional stimulus space, where...

Coincidence of pheromone and plant odor leads to sensory plasticity in the heliothine olfactory system

Galizia 0 Bente G. Berg 1 0 UniversitaÈt Konstanz Fachbereich Biologie , Konstanz , Germany 1 Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), Department of Psychology , Trondheim , Norway Male

The Sound and the Fury—Bees Hiss when Expecting Danger

Honey bees are important model systems for the investigation of learning and memory and for a better understanding of the neuronal basics of brain function. Honey bees also possess a rich repertoire of tones and sounds, from queen piping and quacking to worker hissing and buzzing. In this study, we tested whether the worker bees’ sounds can be used as a measure of learning. We...

Different Repellents for Aedes aegypti against Blood-Feeding and Oviposition

Galizia 0 Immo A. Hansen, New Mexico State University, United States of America 0 1 Neurobiology, University of Konstanz , Konstanz, Germany, 2 Heinrich Suso Gymnasium, Konstanz , Germany Methyl N,N

Signal extraction from movies of honeybee brain activity: the ImageBee plugin for KNIME

Background In the antennal lobe, a dedicated olfactory center of the honeybee brain, odours are encoded as activity patterns of coding units, the so-called glomeruli. Optical imaging with calcium-sensitive dyes allows us to record these activity patterns and to gain insight into olfactory information processing in the brain. Method We introduce ImageBee, a plugin for the data...

Fast PCA for processing calcium-imaging data from the brain of Drosophila melanogaster

Background The calcium-imaging technique allows us to record movies of brain activity in the antennal lobe of the fruitfly Drosophila melanogaster, a brain compartment dedicated to information about odors. Signal processing, e.g. with source separation techniques, can be slow on the large movie datasets. Method We have developed an approximate Principal Component Analysis (PCA...

Elemental and configural olfactory coding by antennal lobe neurons of the honeybee (Apis mellifera)

Anneke Meyer 0 C. Giovanni Galizia 0 0 A. Meyer C. G. Galizia (&) Department of Biology, University of Konstanz , Constance, Germany When smelling an odorant mixture, olfactory systems can be

Weaker Ligands Can Dominate an Odor Blend due to Syntopic Interactions

Most odors in natural environments are mixtures of several compounds. Perceptually, these can blend into a new “perfume,” or some components may dominate as elements of the mixture. In order to understand such mixture interactions, it is necessary to study the events at the olfactory periphery, down to the level of single-odorant receptor cells. Does a strong ligand present at a...

Octopamine modulates activity of neural networks in the honey bee antennal lobe

Neuronal plasticity allows an animal to respond to environmental changes by modulating its response to stimuli. In the honey bee (Apis mellifera), the biogenic amine octopamine plays a crucial role in appetitive odor learning, but little is known about how octopamine affects the brain. We investigated its effect in the antennal lobe, the first olfactory center in the brain, using...

The Speed of Smell: Odor-Object Segregation within Milliseconds

Segregating objects from background, and determining which of many concurrent stimuli belong to the same object, remains one of the most challenging unsolved problems both in neuroscience and in technical applications. While this phenomenon has been investigated in depth in vision and audition it has hardly been investigated in olfaction. We found that for honeybees a 6-ms...

The early bee catches the flower - circadian rhythmicity influences learning performance in honey bees, Apis mellifera

Marina Lehmann David Gustav C. Giovanni Galizia 0 ) Neurobiology, University of Konstanz, Universittsstrae 10 , 78464 Konstanz, Germany Circadian rhythmicity plays an important role for many

DNA Methylation Mediates the Discriminatory Power of Associative Long-Term Memory in Honeybees

Memory is created by several interlinked processes in the brain, some of which require long-term gene regulation. Epigenetic mechanisms are likely candidates for regulating memory-related genes. Among these, DNA methylation is known to be a long lasting genomic mark and may be involved in the establishment of long-term memory. Here we demonstrate that DNA methyltransferases...

Integrating Heterogeneous Odor Response Data into a Common Response Model: A DoOR to the Complete Olfactome

We have developed a new computational framework for merging odor response data sets from heterogeneous studies, creating a consensus metadatabase, the database of odor responses (DoOR). As a result, we obtained a functional atlas of all available odor responses in Drosophila melanogaster. Both the program and the data set are freely accessible and downloadable on the Internet...

Role of histamine as a putative inhibitory transmitter in the honeybee antennal lobe

Background Odors are represented by specific spatio-temporal activity patterns in the olfactory bulb of vertebrates and its insect analogue, the antennal lobe. In honeybees inhibitory circuits in the AL are involved in the processing of odors to shape afferent odor responses. GABA is known as an inhibitory transmitter in the antennal lobe, but not all interneurons are GABAergic...

Odor Similarity Does Not Influence the Time Needed for Odor Processing

The brain’s link between perception and action involves several steps, which include stimulus transduction, neuronal coding of the stimulus, comparison to a memory template and choice of an appropriate behavioral response. All of these need time, and many studies report that the time needed to compare two stimuli correlates inversely with the perceived distance between them. We...

Temporal Integrity of an Airborne Odor Stimulus is Greatly Affected by Physical Aspects of the Odor Delivery System

There is currently a debate about the role played by temporal patterns in neural activity in olfactory coding. An accurate analysis of this question, however, is only possible if the temporal properties of a stimulus itself are well defined. So far, no technique with sufficient temporal resolution has been available to accomplish this. Using a photoionization detector (PID), we...

Spatial Representation of Odours in the Antennal Lobe of the Moth Spodoptera littoralis (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

Glomeruli within the antennal lobe (AL) of moths are convergence sites for a large number of olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs). The ORNs target single glomeruli. In the male-specific cluster of glomeruli, the macroglomerular complex (MGC), the input is chemotypic in that each glomerulus of the MGC receives information about a specific component of the conspecific female sex...

Relationship of visual and olfactory signal parameters in a food-deceptive flower mimicry system

Pollinators such as bees are attracted to flowers by their visual display and their scent. Although most flowers reinforce visits by providing pollen and/or nectar, there are species—notably from the orchid family—that do not but do resemble rewarding species. These mimicry relationships provide ideal opportunities for investigating the evolution of floral signals and their...