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Prevalence, pathogenesis, therapy, and prevention of cardiovascular events in patients with community-acquired pneumonia

It is now well recognised that cardiac events occur relatively commonly in patients with acute community-acquired pneumonia. While these events are more frequent in patients with underlying risk factors—such as those with underlying chronic cardiovascular and respiratory comorbidities, the elderly, and in nursing home residents—they also occur in patients with no underlying risks...

The diagnosis of pneumonia requires a chest radiograph (x-ray)–yes, no or sometimes?

Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) remains a common condition associated with considerable morbidity and mortality. Outcome is improved by early recognition and rapid institution of empirical antibiotic therapy. A number of international guidelines recommend a chest radiograph (x-ray) is obtained when pneumonia is suspected; the argument forwarded is that chest radiographs are...

Estimated severe pneumococcal disease cases and deaths before and after pneumococcal conjugate vaccine introduction in children younger than 5 years of age in South Africa

: Claire von Mollendorf. 17 / 19 Writing ± review & editing: Claire von Mollendorf, Stefano Tempia, Anne von Gottberg, Susan Meiring, Vanessa Quan, Charles Feldman, Jeane Cloete, Shabir A. Madhi, Katherine L

Views of Medical Doctors Regarding the 2013 WHO Adult HIV Treatment Guidelines Indicate Variable Applicability for Routine Patient Monitoring, for Their Family Members and for Themselves, in South-Africa

) Acknowledgments PEPFAR supports WDFV and LF. Charles Feldman is supported by the National Research Foundation (SA). Thanks to the Southern African HIV Clinicians Society for distributing the survey to members

HIV Infection and the Epidemiology of Invasive Pneumococcal Disease (IPD) in South African Adults and Older Children Prior to the Introduction of a Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine (PCV)

, Anne-Marie Pretorius (Free State); Khatija Ahmed, Anwar Hoosen, Ruth Lekalakala, Pyu Pyu Sein, Charles Feldman, Alan Karstaedt, Olga Perovic, Jeannette Wadula, Mike Dove, Kathy Lindeque, Linda Meyer

Streptococcus pneumoniae Serotypes and Mortality in Adults and Adolescents in South Africa: Analysis of National Surveillance Data, 2003 - 2008

); Peter Smith, Anne-Marie Pretorius (Free State); Pyu-Pyu Sein, Anwar Hoosen, Ruth Lekalakala, Olga Perovic, Charles Feldman, Alan Karstaedt, Kathy Lindeque, Jeannette Wadula (Gauteng); Halima Dawood

Lack of Association of the Caspase-12 Long Allele with Community-Acquired Pneumonia in People of African Descent

Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is a common cause of sepsis. Active full-length caspase-12 (CASP12L), confined to the people of African descent, has been associated with increased susceptibility to and mortality from severe sepsis. The objective of this study was to determine whether CASP12L was a marker for susceptibility and/or severity of CAP. We examined three CAP cohorts...

A reliable and effective method of DNA isolation from old human blood paper cards

Blood paper cards provide an effective DNA storage method. In this study, we used three DNA dissolving reagents (Tris-EDTA [TE] buffer, Tris–HCl buffer, and water) and one common commercially available kit (DN131 from MRC Inc) to elute DNA from 105 human blood paper cards collected up to 10 years ago. These DNA samples were used as templates for amplification of a single...

Causes of Death on Antiretroviral Therapy: A Post-Mortem Study from South Africa

Background Mortality in the first months of antiretroviral therapy (ART) is a significant clinical problem in sub-Saharan Africa. To date, no post-mortem study has investigated the causes of mortality in these patients. Methods HIV-positive adults who died as in-patients at a Johannesburg academic hospital underwent chart-review and ultrasound-guided needle autopsy for...

Gender as a Risk Factor for Both Antibiotic Resistance and Infection with Pediatric Serogroups/Serotypes, in HIV-Infected and -Uninfected Adults with Pneumococcal Bacteremia

Among 1022 adults with either pneumococcal bacteremia or meningitis, 85.5% of women and 74.7% of men were infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). A multivariable regression analysis found more pediatric serogroups/serotypes (odds ratio [OR], 1.59 [95% confidence interval {CI}, 1.18–2.15]) and more penicillin-nonsusceptible strains (OR, 1.65 [95% CI, 1.06–2.59]) in women...

Proinflammatory Interactions of Pneumolysin with Human Neutrophils

The effects of pneumolysin on the proinflammatory activity of human neutrophils, as well as on cation fluxes in these cells, have been investigated. Superoxide production, release of elastase, CR3 expression, phospholipase A2 activity, and alterations in membrane potential were measured by use of lucigenin-enhanced chemiluminescence and colorimetric, flow cytometric, radiometric...

An International Prospective Study of Pneumococcal Bacteremia: Correlation with In Vitro Resistance, Antibiotics Administered, and Clinical Outcome

investigator), Sally A. Roberts, Dragana Drinkovic, and Susan L. Taylor. South Africa. Johannesburg Hospital, Johannesburg: Charles Feldman (principal investigator), Keith P. Klugman (coprincipal investigator