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Therapeutic antibodies that target inflammatory cytokines in autoimmune diseases

Inflammatory cytokines are key regulators of immune responses. Persistent and excessive production of inflammatory cytokines underscores the development of autoimmune diseases. Therefore, neutralizing inflammatory cytokines or antagonizing their receptor function is considered as a useful therapeutic strategy to treat autoimmune diseases. To achieve the success of such a strategy, ...

IL-25 blockade inhibits metastasis in breast cancer

, Xiaohu Wang and Chen Dong declare that they have no conflict of interest. For studies with human subjects, all procedures followed were in accordance with the ethical standards of the responsible

Genome-Wide Identification, Phylogenetic and Expression Analyses of the Ubiquitin-Conjugating Enzyme Gene Family in Maize

Background Ubiquitination is a post-translation modification where ubiquitin is attached to a substrate. Ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes (E2s) play a major role in the ubiquitin transfer pathway, as well as a variety of functions in plant biological processes. To date, no genome-wide characterization of this gene family has been conducted in maize (Zea mays). Methodology/Principal ...

Performance comparison of cooperative relay links with different relay processing strategies: Nakagami/Gamma approximation approaches

Jia Shi Chen Dong Lie-Liang Yang 0 School of Electronics and Computer Science, University of Southampton , Southampton, SO17 1BJ, UK In this article, we investigate and compare the error performance

Regulation of Inflammation by IL-17A and IL-17F Modulates Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Pathogenesis

Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has become the most common chronic liver disease worldwide. While it is well-accepted that inflammation is central to NAFLD pathogenesis, the immune pathway(s) orchestrating disease progression are poorly defined. Notably, IL-17RA signaling, via IL-17A, plays an important role in obesity-driven NAFLD pathogenesis. However, the role of the ...

miRNA-146 negatively regulates the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines via NF-κB signalling in human gingival fibroblasts

Objective In human gingival fibroblasts (HGFs), TLR4 recognises Pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs), such as LPS, and subsequently activates downstream signals that lead to the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. The aim of this study was to explore the mechanisms of LPS-induced miRNA-146 regulation of TLR4 signals in HGFs. Materials and methods HGFs were treated ...

Highly efficient uptake of ultrafine mesoporous silica nanoparticles with excellent biocompatibility by Liriodendron hybrid suspension cells

The characteristics of the interactions co-cultures of ultrafine mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) and the Liriodendron hybrid suspension cells were systematically investigated using laser scanning confocal microscope (LSCM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Using fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) labeling, the LSCM observations demonstrated that MSNs (size, 5–15 nm) ...

Gambogenic Acid Kills Lung Cancer Cells through Aberrant Autophagy

Lung cancer is one of the most common types of cancer and causes 1.38 million deaths annually, as of 2008 worldwide. Identifying natural anti-lung cancer agents has become very important. Gambogenic acid (GNA) is one of the active compounds of Gamboge, a traditional medicine that was used as a drastic purgative, emetic, or vermifuge for treating tapeworm. Recently, increasing ...

Epstein Barr Virus-Induced 3 (EBI3) Together with IL-12 Negatively Regulates T Helper 17-Mediated Immunity to Listeria monocytogenes Infection

Although the protective functions by T helper 17 (Th17) cytokines against extracellular bacterial and fungal infection have been well documented, their importance against intracellular bacterial infection remains unclear. Here, we investigated the contribution of Th17 responses to host defense against intracellular bacteria Listeria monocytogenes and found that Th17 cell generation ...

Epicutaneous Exposure to Staphylococcal Superantigen Enterotoxin B Enhances Allergic Lung Inflammation via an IL-17A Dependent Mechanism

Atopic dermatitis (AD) is the initial step of the atopic march: the progression from AD to allergic rhinitis and asthma. There is a close association between skin barrier abnormalities and the development of AD and the atopic march. One of cardinal features of AD is that the lesional skin of the majority of AD patients is chronically colonized with Staphylococcus aureus with half ...

A Protective Role by Interleukin-17F in Colon Tumorigenesis

Interleukin-17F (IL-17F), produced by Th17 cells and other immune cells, is a member of IL-17 cytokine family with highest homology to IL-17A. IL-17F has been shown to have multiple functions in inflammatory responses. While IL-17A plays important roles in cancer development, the function of IL-17F in tumorigenesis has not yet been elucidated. In the current study, we found that ...

A novel method for purifying bluetongue virus with high purity by co-immunoprecipitation with agarose protein A

Background Bluetongue virus (BTV) is an icosahedral non-enveloped virus within the genus Orbivirus of Reoviridae and exists as 24 distinct serotypes. BTV can infect all ruminant species and causes severe sickness in sheep. Recently, it was reported that BTV can infect some human cancer cells selectively. Because of the important oncolysis of this virus, we developed a novel ...

Deletion of TAK1 in the Myeloid Lineage Results in the Spontaneous Development of Myelomonocytic Leukemia in Mice

D. Schneider Cynthia R. Lockworth Jared Jakacky Diep Tran Michael Ho Sity Dawud Chen Dong Hui-Kuan Lin Peter Hu Zeev Estrov Carlos E. Bueso-Ramos Bryant G. Darnay Daniel T. Starczynowski, Cincinnati

Cell fate decision: T-helper 1 and 2 subsets in immune responses

After activation CD4+ helper T cells differentiate into T-helper (Th) 1 or Th2 effector cells. These two subsets are characterized by their distinct cytokine expression pattern and the immune function they mediate. Over the past years, a number of factors have been identified to affect helper T cell lineage determination, including antigen receptor, coreceptors and, most ...

CD4+ICOS+ T lymphocytes inhibit T cell activation ‘in vitro’ and attenuate autoimmune encephalitis ‘in vivo’

The inducible co-stimulator (ICOS, CD278) is essential to the efficient development of normal and pathological immune reactions. Since ICOS-deficient mice have enhanced susceptibility to experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE), we have functionally analyzed a CD4+ICOS+ population comprising 6–15% of all CD4+ T cells in secondary lymphoid organs of unmanipulated wild-type mice ...

Identification of core functional region of murine IL-4 using peptide phage display and molecular modeling

Murine IL-4 is a pleiotropic cytokine with undefined core functional region for eliciting downstream signaling. We used molecular modeling to predict the binding sites recognized by an anti-IL-4-neutralizing mAb (11B.11) and peptide phage display to delineate their makeup. The results of these approaches were confirmed by site-directed mutagenesis analysis. The results suggest that ...