. Data curation: Precious Takondwa Makondi, Chia-Hwa Lee, Yu-Jia Chang. Investigation: Precious Takondwa Makondi, Chi-Ming Chu, Po-Li Wei. S2 Table. Up-regulated genes. (DOCX) Author Contributions Formal ... . Supervision: Yu-Jia Chang, Po-Li Wei. Validation: Chia-Hwa Lee, Po-Li Wei. Visualization: Yu-Jia Chang. Writing ± original draft: Precious Takondwa Makondi, Yu-Jia Chang, Po-Li Wei. Writing ± review
Previous studies indicated that smoking exposure is associated with an increased risk of breast cancer, and α9-nicotine acetylcholine receptors (α9-nAChRs) are involved in breast tumorigenesis. However, no studies have explored the joint effect of α9-nAChRs (CHRNA9) genes and cigarette smoking exposure on breast cancer risk. A case–control study was conducted on 737 breast cancer...
Editor: Sushant Kachhap Copyright © 2011 Chia-Hwa Lee et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and
Background Large epidemiological cohort studies in the United States have indicated that active and passive smoking are associated with increased breast cancer risk. However, there was no direct evidence of an effect of tobacco carcinogens on the cellular molecules involved in breast tumorigenesis.