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Hospital admissions for skin infections among Western Australian children and adolescents from 1996 to 2012

their input. Author Contributions Conceptualization: David Hendrickx, Roz Walker, Christopher C. Blyth, Jonathan R. Carapetis, Asha C. Bowen, Hannah C. Moore. Data curation: Tasnim Abdalla, Parveen ... Fathima. Formal analysis: Tasnim Abdalla, Parveen Fathima. Funding acquisition: Roz Walker, Christopher C. Blyth, Jonathan R. Carapetis, Hannah C. Moore. Investigation: Tasnim Abdalla, David Hendrickx

Childhood pneumonia and meningitis in the Eastern Highlands Province, Papua New Guinea in the era of conjugate vaccines: study methods and challenges

Background Pneumonia and meningitis are common causes of severe childhood illness in Papua New Guinea (PNG). The etiology of both clinical conditions in PNG has not been recently assessed. Changes in lifestyle, provision and access to healthcare, antimicrobial utilization and resistance, and the national childhood vaccination schedule necessitate reassessment. Methods A...

Modelling the Seasonal Epidemics of Respiratory Syncytial Virus in Young Children

Background Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a major cause of paediatric morbidity. Mathematical models can be used to characterise annual RSV seasonal epidemics and are a valuable tool to assess the impact of future vaccines. Objectives Construct a mathematical model of seasonal epidemics of RSV and by fitting to a population-level RSV dataset, obtain a better understanding...

A prospective cohort study comparing the reactogenicity of trivalent influenza vaccine in pregnant and non-pregnant women

Background Influenza vaccination during pregnancy can prevent serious illness in expectant mothers and provide protection to newborns; however, historically uptake has been limited due to a number of factors, including safety concerns. Symptomatic complaints are common during pregnancy and may be mistakenly associated with reactions to trivalent influenza vaccine (TIV). To...

Pandemic clinical case definitions are non-specific: multiple respiratory viruses circulating in the early phases of the 2009 influenza pandemic in New South Wales, Australia

Background During the early phases of the 2009 pandemic, subjects with influenza-like illness only had laboratory testing specific for the new A(H1N1)pdm09 virus. Findings Between 25th May and 7th June 2009, during the pandemic CONTAIN phase, A(H1N1)pdm09 virus was detected using nucleic acid tests in only 56 of 1466 (3.8%) samples meeting the clinical case definition required...

Viral Pneumonitis Is Increased in Obese Patients during the First Wave of Pandemic A(H1N1) 2009 Virus

Introduction There is conflicting data as to whether obesity is an independent risk factor for mortality in severe pandemic (H1N1) 2009 influenza (A(H1N1)pdm09). It is postulated that excess inflammation and cytokine production in obese patients following severe influenza infection leads to viral pneumonitis and/or acute respiratory distress syndrome. Methods Demographic...

Influenza Outbreak during Sydney World Youth Day 2008: The Utility of Laboratory Testing and Case Definitions on Mass Gathering Outbreak Containment

Background Influenza causes annual epidemics and often results in extensive outbreaks in closed communities. To minimize transmission, a range of interventions have been suggested. For these to be effective, an accurate and timely diagnosis of influenza is required. This is confirmed by a positive laboratory test result in an individual whose symptoms are consistent with a...

Enhanced Diagnosis of Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 Influenza Infection Using Molecular and Serological Testing in Intensive Care Unit Patients with Suspected Influenza

During the 2009 outbreak of pandemic (H1N1) 2009 influenza (pH1N1) in Australia, acute and convalescent serum specimens were collected from 33 patients with severe respiratory disease admitted to intensive care units. Using hemagglutination inhibition of pH1N1, 29 paired serum samples showed significant increases in specific antibody titers. Of these 29 patients, 18 had pH1N1 RNA...