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36 papers found.
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Prevalence and correlates of achieving recommended physical activity levels among children living in rural South Asia—A multi-centre study

Background We report the prevalence of recommended physical activity levels (RPALs) and examine the correlates of achieving RPALs in rural South Asian children and analyse its association with anthropometric outcomes. Methods This analysis on rural South Asian children aged 5–14 years (n = 564) is a part of the Chronic Disease Risk Factor study conducted at three sites in India ...

Associations between active travel and weight, blood pressure and diabetes in six middle income countries: a cross-sectional study in older adults

Background There is little published data on the potential health benefits of active travel in low and middle-income countries. This is despite increasing levels of adiposity being linked to increases in physical inactivity and non-communicable diseases. This study will examine: (1) socio-demographic correlates of using active travel (walking or cycling for transport) among older ...

Sugar and artificially sweetened beverage consumption and adiposity changes: National longitudinal study

Background In response to increasing policy action and public concern about the negative health effects of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs), there is increased promotion of artificially sweetened beverages (ASBs). These have been linked with obesity and diabetes in recent experimental work. This study examined associations between SSB and ASB consumption and changes in adiposity in ...

Waterpipe Tobacco Use in the United Kingdom: A Cross-Sectional Study among University Students and Stop Smoking Practitioners

Introduction Despite cigarette-like adverse health outcomes associated with waterpipe tobacco smoking and increase in its use among youth, it is a much underexplored research area. We aimed to measure the prevalence and patterns of waterpipe tobacco use and evaluate tobacco control policy with respect to waterpipe tobacco, in several universities across the UK. We also aimed to ...

Hypertension: a cross-sectional study of the role of multimorbidity in blood pressure control

Background Hypertension is the most prevalent cardiovascular long-term condition in the UK and is associated with a high rate of multimorbidity (MM). Multimorbidity increases with age, ethnicity and social deprivation. Previous studies have yielded conflicting findings about the relationship between MM and blood pressure (BP) control. Our aim was to investigate the relationship ...

Associations between active travel and adiposity in rural India and Bangladesh: a cross-sectional study

Background Data on use and health benefits of active travel in rural low- and middle- income country settings are sparse. We aimed to examine correlates of active travel, and its association with adiposity, in rural India and Bangladesh. Methods Cross sectional study of 2,122 adults (≥18 years) sampled in 2011–13 from two rural sites in India (Goa and Chennai) and one in Bangladesh ...

Impact of Noncommunicable Disease Multimorbidity on Healthcare Utilisation and Out-Of-Pocket Expenditures in Middle-Income Countries: Cross Sectional Analysis

Background The burden of non-communicable disease (NCDs) has grown rapidly in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), where populations are ageing, with rising prevalence of multimorbidity (more than two co-existing chronic conditions) that will significantly increase pressure on already stretched health systems. We assess the impact of NCD multimorbidity on healthcare ...

The Relationship between Waterpipe and Cigarette Smoking in Low and Middle Income Countries: Cross-Sectional Analysis of the Global Adult Tobacco Survey

Tayu Lee 0 Christopher Millett 0 Thomas Behrens, Universitat Bochum, Germany 0 1 Department of Primary Care and Public Health, School of Public Health, Imperial College London , London , United Kingdom

The Health System and Population Health Implications of Large-Scale Diabetes Screening in India: A Microsimulation Model of Alternative Approaches

Background Like a growing number of rapidly developing countries, India has begun to develop a system for large-scale community-based screening for diabetes. We sought to identify the implications of using alternative screening instruments to detect people with undiagnosed type 2 diabetes among diverse populations across India. Methods and Findings We developed and validated a ...

Rural, Urban and Migrant Differences in Non-Communicable Disease Risk-Factors in Middle Income Countries: A Cross-Sectional Study of WHO-SAGE Data

Background Understanding how urbanisation and rural-urban migration influence risk-factors for non-communicable disease (NCD) is crucial for developing effective preventative strategies globally. This study compares NCD risk-factor prevalence in urban, rural and migrant populations in China, Ghana, India, Mexico, Russia and South Africa. Methods Study participants were 39,436 ...

Impact of ‘Stretch’ Targets for Cardiovascular Disease Management within a Local Pay-for-Performance Programme

Millett 0 1 0 Department of Primary Care and Public Health, Imperial College London , London , United Kingdom 1 Academic Editor: Chiara Lazzeri , Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria Careggi, ITALY Pay-for

Non communicable disease multimorbidity and associated health care utilization and expenditures in India: cross-sectional study

Background Non communicable disease (NCD) multimorbidity is increasingly becoming common in high income settings but little is known about its epidemiology and associated impacts on citizens and health systems in low and middle-income countries (LMICs). We aim to examine the socio-demographic distribution of NCD multimorbidity (≥2 diseases) and its implications for health care ...

The Effect of Tobacco Control Measures during a Period of Rising Cardiovascular Disease Risk in India: A Mathematical Model of Myocardial Infarction and Stroke

In this paper from Basu and colleagues, a simulation of tobacco control and pharmacological interventions to prevent cardiovascular disease mortality in India predicted that Smokefree laws and increased tobacco taxation are likely to be the most effective measures to avert future cardiovascular deaths in India. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary

Impact of a COPD Discharge Care Bundle on Readmissions following Admission with Acute Exacerbation: Interrupted Time Series Analysis

Objectives We evaluated the impact of a COPD discharge care bundle on readmission rates following hospitalisation with an acute exacerbation. Design Interrupted time series analysis, comparing readmission rates for COPD exacerbations at nine trusts that introduced the bundle, to two comparison groups; (1) other NHS trusts in London and (2) all other NHS trusts in England. Care ...

Impact of ethnic-specific guidelines for anti-hypertensive prescribing in primary care in England: a longitudinal study

Background In England, the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) produces guidelines for the management of hypertension. In 2006, the NICE guidelines introduced an ethnic-age group algorithm based on the 2004 British Hypertension Society guidelines to guide antihypertensive drug prescription. Methods A longitudinal retrospective study with 15933 hypertensive ...

State and socio-demographic group variation in out-of-pocket expenditure, borrowings and Janani Suraksha Yojana (JSY) programme use for birth deliveries in India

Modugu 0 Manish Kumar Ashok Kumar Christopher Millett 0 South Asia Network for Chronic Disease (SANCD), Public Health Foundation of India (PHFI), C1/52, First Floor, Safdarjung Development Area , New

Socio-economic patterning of cardiometabolic risk factors in rural and peri-urban India: Andhra Pradesh children and parents study (APCAPS)

Aim To assess the prevalence of cardiometabolic risk factors by socio-economic position (SEP) in rural and peri-urban Indian population. Subjects and methods Cross-sectional survey of 3,948 adults (1,154 households) from Telangana (2010–2012) was conducted to collect questionnaire-based data, physical measurements and fasting blood samples. We compared the prevalence of risk ...

Socioeconomic Inequalities in Non-Communicable Diseases Prevalence in India: Disparities between Self-Reported Diagnoses and Standardized Measures

Background Whether non-communicable diseases (NCDs) are diseases of poverty or affluence in low-and-middle income countries has been vigorously debated. Most analyses of NCDs have used self-reported data, which is biased by differential access to healthcare services between groups of different socioeconomic status (SES). We sought to compare self-reported diagnoses versus ...

Impact of Universal Health Insurance Coverage on Hypertension Management: A Cross-National Study in the United States and England

Background The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) galvanised debate in the United States (US) over universal health coverage. Comparison with countries providing universal coverage may illustrate whether the ACA can improve health outcomes and reduce disparities. We aimed to compare quality and disparities in hypertension management by socio-economic position in the ...

The Effects of Pay for Performance on Disparities in Stroke, Hypertension, and Coronary Heart Disease Management: Interrupted Time Series Study

Background The Quality and Outcomes Framework (QOF), a major pay-for-performance programme, was introduced into United Kingdom primary care in April 2004. The impact of this programme on disparities in health care remains unclear. This study examines the following questions: has this pay for performance programme improved the quality of care for coronary heart disease, stroke and ...