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Correction: Associations of Infant Feeding and Timing of Weight Gain and Linear Growth during Early Life with Childhood Blood Pressure: Findings from a Prospective Population Based Cohort Study

Prospective Population Based Cohort Study Marieke de Beer Tanja G. M. Vrijkotte Caroline H. D. Fall Manon van Eijsden Clive Osmond Reinoud J. B. J. Gemke Notice of Republication Correction: Associations of

Maternal antenatal multiple micronutrient supplementation for long-term health benefits in children: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Background Multiple micronutrient supplementation for pregnant women reduces low birth weight and has been recommended in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) to improve child survival, growth and health. We aimed to review the evidence from long-term follow-up studies of multiple micronutrient supplementation beginning in the later first or second trimester. Methods We ...

The lifelong socioeconomic disadvantage of single-mother background - the Helsinki Birth Cohort study 1934–1944

Background Growing up with one parent is associated with economic hardship and health disadvantages, but there is limited evidence of its lifetime consequences. We examined whether being born to an unmarried mother is associated with socioeconomic position and marital history over the lifespan. Methods We analysed data from the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study including birth, child ...

Associations of Infant Feeding and Timing of Weight Gain and Linear Growth during Early Life with Childhood Blood Pressure: Findings from a Prospective Population Based Cohort Study

Objective Small birth size and rapid postnatal growth have been associated with higher future blood pressure. The timing of these effects, the relative importance of weight gain and linear growth and the role of infant feeding need to be clarified. Methods We assessed how blood pressure relates to birth weight, infant and childhood growth and infant feeding (duration of exclusive ...

Linear Growth and Fat and Lean Tissue Gain during Childhood: Associations with Cardiometabolic and Cognitive Outcomes in Adolescent Indian Children

Background We aimed to determine how linear growth and fat and lean tissue gain during discrete age periods from birth to adolescence are related to adolescent cardiometabolic risk factors and cognitive ability. Methods Adolescents born to mothers with normal glucose tolerance during pregnancy from an Indian birth cohort (N = 486, age 13.5 years) had detailed anthropometry and ...

Early Life Origins of All-Cause and Cause-Specific Disability Pension: Findings from the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study

Background There is some evidence linking sub-optimal prenatal development to an increased risk of disability pension (DP). Our aim was to investigate whether body size at birth was associated with transitioning into all-cause and cause-specific DP during the adult work career. Methods 10 682 people born in 1934–44 belonging to the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study had data on birth ...

Maternal Grand Multiparity and the Risk of Severe Mental Disorders in Adult Offspring

Background Previous studies have shown that maternal grand multiparity may predict an increased risk of mental disorders in young adult offspring, but whether such effects persist throughout adulthood remains unknown. The current study examined if maternal grand multiparity predicts the risks of severe mental disorders, suicides, suicide attempts and dementias throughout adult ...

Limitations of fasting indices in the measurement of insulin sensitivity in Afro-Caribbean adults

Background Insulin sensitivity can be estimated using glucose disposal rate (M) measured during a hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp (HEC) or insulin sensitivity index (SI) derived from a frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test (FSIVGTT). The commonly used homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) which utilizes fasting glucose and insulin has been ...

Prenatal and Childhood Growth, and Hospitalization for Alcohol Use Disorders in Adulthood: The Helsinki Birth Cohort Study

Background Small birth size - an indicator of a sub-optimal prenatal environment - and variation in growth after birth have been associated with non-communicable diseases in later life. We tested whether birth size or growth in childhood associated with the risk of hospital admission for alcohol use disorders (AUDs) from early to late adulthood. Methods The sample comprised 6544 ...

Preterm Birth—A Risk Factor for Type 2 Diabetes?: The Helsinki Birth Cohort Study

EERO KAJANTIE PHD CLIVE OSMOND PHD DAVID J.P. BARKER FRS JOHAN G. ERIKSSON PHD E p i d e m i o l o g y / H e a l t h OBJECTIVE - The association between low birth weight and type 2 diabetes is well

Early Life Stress and Physical and Psychosocial Functioning in Late Adulthood

Background Severe stress experienced in early life may have long-term effects on adult physiological and psychological health and well-being. We studied physical and psychosocial functioning in late adulthood in subjects separated temporarily from their parents in childhood during World War II. Methods The 1803 participants belong to the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study, born 1934–44. ...

Evidence for Developmental Programming of Cerebral Laterality in Humans

Adverse fetal environments are associated with depression, reduced cognitive ability and increased stress responsiveness in later life, but underlying mechanisms are unknown. Environmental pressures on the fetus, resulting from variations in placental function and maternal nutrition, health and stress might alter neurodevelopment, promoting the development of some brain regions ...

Stroke Is Predicted by Low Visuospatial in Relation to Other Intellectual Abilities and Coronary Heart Disease by Low General Intelligence

Background Low intellectual ability is associated with an increased risk of coronary heart disease and stroke. Most studies have used a general intelligence score. We studied whether three different subscores of intellectual ability predict these disorders. Methods We studied 2,786 men, born between 1934 and 1944 in Helsinki, Finland, who as conscripts at age 20 underwent an ...

Body Size at Birth Is Associated with Food and Nutrient Intake in Adulthood

Background Small body size at birth is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. Dietary habits are tightly linked with these disorders, but the association between body size at birth and adult diet has been little studied. We examined the association between body size at birth and intake of foods and macronutrients in adulthood. ...

Early Life Origins Cognitive Decline: Findings in Elderly Men in the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study

Objectives To examine whether the adverse effects of slow prenatal and postnatal growth on cognitive function persist to old age and predict age related cognitive decline. Design and Setting A longitudinal birth cohort study of men born in Helsinki, Finland 1934-44. Participants Nine-hundred-thirty-one men of the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study, with detailed data on growth from birth ...

Birth Size and Childhood Growth as Determinants of Physical Functioning in Older Age: The Helsinki Birth Cohort Study

, United Kingdom (Clive Osmond, David J. P. Barker); Fetal Programming, College of Science, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia (David J. P. Barker); Unit of General Practice, Helsinki University

Developmental Origins of Physical Fitness: The Helsinki Birth Cohort Study

Background Cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) is a major factor influencing health and disease outcomes including all-cause mortality and cardiovascular disease. Importantly CRF is also modifiable and could therefore have a major public health impact. Early life exposures play a major role in chronic disease development. Our aim was to explore the potential prenatal and childhood ...

Prenatal Factors Contribute to the Emergence of Kwashiorkor or Marasmus in Severe Undernutrition: Evidence for the Predictive Adaptation Model

Background Severe acute malnutrition in childhood manifests as oedematous (kwashiorkor, marasmic kwashiorkor) and non-oedematous (marasmus) syndromes with very different prognoses. Kwashiorkor differs from marasmus in the patterns of protein, amino acid and lipid metabolism when patients are acutely ill as well as after rehabilitation to ideal weight for height. Metabolic patterns ...

Birth Weight, Childhood Body Mass Index and Risk of Coronary Heart Disease in Adults: Combined Historical Cohort Studies

Background Low birth weight and high childhood body mass index (BMI) is each associated with an increased risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) in adult life. We studied individual and combined associations of birth weight and childhood BMI with the risk of CHD in adulthood. Methods/Principal Findings Birth weight and BMI at age seven years were available in 216,771 Danish and ...

Size at Birth, Weight Gain in Infancy and Childhood, and Adult Diabetes Risk in Five Low- or Middle-Income Country Birth Cohorts

OBJECTIVE We examined associations of birth weight and weight gain in infancy and early childhood with type 2 diabetes (DM) risk in five cohorts from low- and middle-income countries.