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Role of water in the formation of macromolecular structures

; Hydration; Tissues; Proteins; DNA - The phenomenon of life is most intimately associated with water: the presence of water is regarded as a key indicator * Colyn Crane-Robinson of life: all living objects

Enthalpy–entropy compensation: the role of solvation

Structural modifications to interacting systems frequently lead to changes in both the enthalpy (heat) and entropy of the process that compensate each other, so that the Gibbs free energy is little changed: a major barrier to the development of lead compounds in drug discovery. The conventional explanation for such enthalpy–entropy compensation (EEC) is that tighter contacts lead ...

The energetic basis of the DNA double helix: a combined microcalorimetric approach

Microcalorimetric studies of DNA duplexes and their component single strands showed that association enthalpies of unfolded complementary strands into completely folded duplexes increase linearly with temperature and do not depend on salt concentration, i.e. duplex formation results in a constant heat capacity decrement, identical for CG and AT pairs. Although duplex ...

Interpreting protein/DNA interactions: distinguishing specific from non-specific and electrostatic from non-electrostatic components

We discuss the effectiveness of existing methods for understanding the forces driving the formation of specific protein–DNA complexes. Theoretical approaches using the Poisson–Boltzmann (PB) equation to analyse interactions between these highly charged macromolecules to form known structures are contrasted with an empirical approach that analyses the effects of salt on the ...

Developmental activation of the lysozyme gene in chicken macrophage cells is linked to core histone acetylation at its enhancer elements

Native chromatin IP assays were used to define changes in core histone acetylation at the lysozyme locus during developmental maturation of chicken macrophages and stimulation to high-level expression by lipo-polysaccharide. In pluripotent precursors the lysozyme gene (Lys) is inactive and there is no acetylation of core histones at the gene, its promoter or at the upstream ...

DNA looping in the RNA polymerase I enhancesome is the result of non-cooperative in-phase bending by two UBF molecules

The so-called upstream binding factor (UBF) is required for the initial step in formation of an RNA polymerase I initiation complex. This function of UBF correlates with its ability to induce the ribosomal enhancesome, a structure which resembles in its mass and DNA content the nucleosome of chromatin. DNA looping in the enhancesome is probably the result of six in-phase bends ...

The DNA Bend Angle and Binding Affinity of an HMG Box Increased by the Presence of Short Terminal Arms

Mirna Lnenicek-Allen 0 Christopher M. Read 0 Colyn Crane-Robinson 0 0 Biophysics Laboratories, University of Portsmouth , St Michael's Building, White Swan Road, Portsmouth PO1 2DT, UK The HMG box

The replacement histone H2A.Z in a hyperacetylated form is a feature of active genes in the chicken

The replacement histone H2A.Z is variously reported as being linked to gene expression and preventing the spread of heterochromatin in yeast, or concentrated at heterochromatin in mammals. To resolve this apparent dichotomy, affinity-purified antibodies against the N-terminal region of H2A.Z, in both a triacetylated and non-acetylated state, are used in native chromatin ...

Histone acetylation and globin gene switching

An affinity-purified antibody that recognises the epitope ε-acetyl lysine has been used to fractionate chicken erythrocyte mononucleosomes obtained from 5 and 15 day embryos. The antibody bound chromatin was enriched in multiply acetylated forms of the core histones H3, H4 and H2B, but not in ubiquitinated H2A. The DNA of these modified nucleosomes was probed with genomic sequences ...

The gene for the human architectural transcription factor HMGI-C consists ofn five exons each coding for a distinct functional element

The gene on chromosome 12 coding for the human protein HMGI-C has been cloned and partially sequenced. It consists of five exons, the first and last of which include long untranslated regions. The 5′ UTR Includes a (CA/T)n tract and a polymorphic (CT)n tract. Exons II, III and IV (87,51 and 33 bp) are dispersed over →30 kb. Exons Mil separately encode the three basic DNA binding ...

A nucleosome-like structure containing DNA and the arginine-rich histones H3 and H4

Tom Moss Ronald M. Stephens Colyn Crane-Robinson E. Morton Bradbury Biophysics Laboratories Portsmouth Polytechnic St. Michael's Building White Swan Road Portsmouth Hampshire The low-angle X-ray d i