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13 papers found.
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Host Genetic Susceptibility to Enteric Viruses: A Systematic Review and Metaanalysis

Background. Norovirus and rotavirus are prominent enteric viruses responsible for severe acute gastroenteritis disease burden around the world. Both viruses recognize and bind to histo-blood group antigens, which are expressed by the fucosyltransferase 2 (FUT2) gene. Individuals with a functional FUT2 gene are termed “secretors.” FUT2 polymorphisms may influence viral binding...

Use of Patients With Diarrhea Who Test Negative for Rotavirus as Controls to Estimate Rotavirus Vaccine Effectiveness Through Case-Control Studies

Background. Case-control studies are often performed to estimate postlicensure vaccine effectiveness (VE), but the enrollment of controls can be challenging, time-consuming, and costly. We evaluated whether children enrolled in the same hospital-based diarrheal surveillance used to identify rotavirus cases but who test negative for rotavirus (test-negative controls) can be...

Does Preventing Rotavirus Infections Through Vaccination Also Protect Against Naturally Occurring Intussusception Over Time?

Chemotherapy; Washington, DC: 17 December 2005 . Correspondence: Daniel C. Payne , PhD, MSPH, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1600 Clifton Rd, NE, MS-A34 , Atlanta, GA 30333 (). Clinical Infectious

Protective Association Between Rotavirus Vaccination and Childhood Seizures in the Year Following Vaccination in US Children

Background. Rotavirus illness has been linked to childhood seizures. We investigated whether a protective association exists between receipt of rotavirus vaccine and being hospitalized or visiting the emergency department for seizures in the year after vaccination. Methods. We retrospectively analyzed a cohort of children born after 28 February 2006 (when rotavirus vaccine was...

Hospital-Associated Outbreak of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus: A Serologic, Epidemiologic, and Clinical Description

Background. In April 2012, the Jordan Ministry of Health investigated an outbreak of lower respiratory illnesses at a hospital in Jordan; 2 fatal cases were retrospectively confirmed by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) to be the first detected cases of Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS-CoV). Methods. Epidemiologic and clinical...

Etiology of Viral Gastroenteritis in Children <5 Years of Age in the United States, 2008–2009

Background. Although rotavirus and norovirus cause nearly 40% of severe endemic acute gastroenteritis (AGE) in children <5 years of age in the United States, there are limited data on the etiologic role of other enteric viruses in this age group. Methods. We conducted active population-based surveillance in children presenting with AGE to hospitals, emergency departments, and...

Stillbirth During Infection With Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus

We conducted an epidemiologic investigation among survivors of an outbreak of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) infection in Jordan. A second-trimester stillbirth occurred during the course of an acute respiratory illness that was attributed to MERS-CoV on the basis of exposure history and positive results of MERS-CoV serologic testing. This is the first...

A Multi-Center, Qualitative Assessment of Pediatrician and Maternal Perspectives on Rotavirus Vaccines and the Detection of Porcine circovirus

. Disclaimer: The findings and conclusions in this report are those of the authors and do not necessarily represent the views of the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Competing interests Daniel C ... . Payne, PhD, MSPH No competing interests to declare Sharon Humiston, MD, MPH Past rotavirus manufacturer speaking engagement. Douglas Opel, MD, MPH No competing interests to declare Allison Kennedy, MPH

Symptomatic Infection and Detection of Vaccine and Vaccine-Reassortant Rotavirus Strains in 5 Children: A Case Series

Vaccine or vaccine-reassortant rotavirus strains were detected in fecal specimens from 5 of 106 (4.7%) immunocompetent children who required treatment for rotavirus gastroenteritis at a large pediatric hospital in Texas in 2009–2010. Four strains were related to pentavalent rotavirus vaccine, whereas one was related to monovalent rotavirus vaccine. The contribution of these...

Direct and Indirect Effects of Rotavirus Vaccination Upon Childhood Hospitalizations in 3 US Counties, 2006–2009

Background. Routine rotavirus vaccination of US infants began in 2006. We conducted active, population-based surveillance for rotavirus gastroenteritis hospitalizations in 3 US counties to assess vaccine impact. Methods. Children <36 months old hospitalized with diarrhea and/or vomiting were enrolled from January through June each year during the period 2006–2009 and tested for...

Underestimates of Intussusception Rates among US Infants Based on Inpatient Discharge Data: Implications for Monitoring the Safety of Rotavirus Vaccines

BackgroundBecause a previous rotavirus vaccine was associated with intussusception, new rotavirus vaccines are monitored postlicensure for any such association. Accurate background intussusception rates are needed to determine whether the number of cases observed after vaccination exceeds that expected by chance. Previously, intussusception rates were obtained from inpatient...

Effectiveness of Pentavalent and Monovalent Rotavirus Vaccines in Concurrent Use Among US Children <5 Years of Age, 2009–2011

Background We assessed vaccine effectiveness (VE) for RotaTeq (RV5; 3 doses) and Rotarix (RV1; 2 doses) at reducing rotavirus acute gastroenteritis (AGE) inpatient and emergency department (ED) visits in US children. Methods We enrolled children <5 years of age hospitalized or visiting the ED with AGE symptoms from November 2009–June 2010 and from November 2010–June 2011 at 7...

A UMLS-based spell checker for natural language processing in vaccine safety

Background The Institute of Medicine has identified patient safety as a key goal for health care in the United States. Detecting vaccine adverse events is an important public health activity that contributes to patient safety. Reports about adverse events following immunization (AEFI) from surveillance systems contain free-text components that can be analyzed using natural...