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Multivariate Gene-Based Association Test on Family Data in MGAS

). Acknowledgments This work was funded by The Netherlands Scientific Organization (NWO/MaGW: VIDI-452-12-014 and Aspasia 015.009.016). Danielle Posthuma is also funded by NWO (VICI 016.140.052). We thank SURFsara ... thank the TES participants and the TES Research Group for their valuable contribution to this research. Compliance with ethical standards Conflict of interest Ce´sar-Reyer Vroom, Danielle Posthuma

MAGMA: Generalized Gene-Set Analysis of GWAS Data

By aggregating data for complex traits in a biologically meaningful way, gene and gene-set analysis constitute a valuable addition to single-marker analysis. However, although various methods for gene and gene-set analysis currently exist, they generally suffer from a number of issues. Statistical power for most methods is strongly affected by linkage disequilibrium between ...

What Twin Studies Tell Us About the Heritability of Brain Development, Morphology, and Function: A Review

The development of brain structure and function shows large inter-individual variation. The extent to which this variation is due to genetic or environmental influences has been investigated in twin studies using structural and functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI). The current review presents an overview of twin studies using MRI in children, adults and elderly, and focuses ...

MGAS: a powerful tool for multivariate gene-based genome-wide association analysis

Motivation: Standard genome-wide association studies, testing the association between one phenotype and a large number of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), are limited in two ways: (i) traits are often multivariate, and analysis of composite scores entails loss in statistical power and (ii) gene-based analyses may be preferred, e.g. to decrease the multiple testing problem. ...

Genetic Influences Are Virtually Absent for Trust

Over the past decades, numerous twin studies have revealed moderate to high heritability estimates for individual differences in a wide range of human traits, including cognitive ability, psychiatric disorders, and personality traits. Even factors that are generally believed to be environmental in nature have been shown to be under genetic control, albeit modest. Is such ...

TATES: Efficient Multivariate Genotype-Phenotype Analysis for Genome-Wide Association Studies

To date, the genome-wide association study (GWAS) is the primary tool to identify genetic variants that cause phenotypic variation. As GWAS analyses are generally univariate in nature, multivariate phenotypic information is usually reduced to a single composite score. This practice often results in loss of statistical power to detect causal variants. Multivariate genotype–phenotype ...

A Note on False Positives and Power in G × E Modelling of Twin Data

more powerful than the full bivariate moderation model. Acknowledgement Sophie van der Sluis (VENI-451-08-025 and VIDI-016-065-318) and Danielle Posthuma (VIDI-016-065-318) are financially supported by

Genes Encoding Heterotrimeric G-proteins Are Associated with Gray Matter Volume Variations in the Medial Frontal Cortex

Nijmegen, the Netherlands 5 Department of Psychiatry, Center for Neuroscience, Donders Institute for Brain, Cognition and Behavior Guille n Ferna ndez and Danielle Posthuma shared responsibility G-protein

Reconsidering the Heritability of Intelligence in Adulthood: Taking Assortative Mating and Cultural Transmission into Account

Heritability estimates of general intelligence in adulthood generally range from 75 to 85%, with all heritability due to additive genetic influences, while genetic dominance and shared environmental factors are absent, or too small to be detected. These estimates are derived from studies based on the classical twin design and are based on the assumption of random mating. Yet, ...

FADS2 Genetic Variance in Combination with Fatty Acid Intake Might Alter Composition of the Fatty Acids in Brain

Multiple lines of evidence suggest that fatty acids (FA) play an important role in cognitive function. However, little is known about the functional genetic pathways involved in cognition. The main goals of this study were to replicate previously reported interaction effects between breast feeding (BF) and FA desaturase (FADS) genetic variation on IQ and to investigate the possible ...

Functional Gene Group Analysis Indicates No Role for Heterotrimeric G Proteins in Cognitive Ability

Previous functional gene group analyses implicated common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in heterotrimeric G protein coding genes as being associated with differences in human intelligence. Here, we sought to replicate this finding using five independent cohorts of older adults including current IQ and childhood IQ, and using both gene- and SNP-based analytic strategies. No ...

Phenotypic Complexity, Measurement Bias, and Poor Phenotypic Resolution Contribute to the Missing Heritability Problem in Genetic Association Studies

Background The variance explained by genetic variants as identified in (genome-wide) genetic association studies is typically small compared to family-based heritability estimates. Explanations of this ‘missing heritability’ have been mainly genetic, such as genetic heterogeneity and complex (epi-)genetic mechanisms. Methodology We used comprehensive simulation studies to show that ...

The Heritability of Aptitude and Exceptional Talent Across Different Domains in Adolescents and Young Adults

The origin of individual differences in aptitude, defined as a domain-specific skill within the normal ability range, and talent, defined as a domain specific skill of exceptional quality, is under debate. The nature of the variation in aptitudes and exceptional talents across different domains was investigated in a population based twin sample. Self-report data from 1,685 twin ...

Individual Differences in Processing Speed and Working Memory Speed as Assessed with the Sternberg Memory Scanning Task

The Sternberg Memory Scanning (SMS) task provides a measure of processing speed (PS) and working memory retrieval speed (WMS). In this task, participants are presented with sets of stimuli that vary in size. After a delay, one item is presented, and participants indicate whether or not the item was part of the set. Performance is assessed by speed and accuracy for both the positive ...

The Construction and Validation of an Abridged Version of the Autism-Spectrum Quotient (AQ-Short)

This study reports on the development and validation of an abridged version of the 50-item Autism-Spectrum Quotient (AQ), a self-report measure of autistic traits. We aimed to reduce the number of items whilst retaining high validity and a meaningful factor structure. The item reduction procedure was performed on data from 1,263 Dutch students and general population adults. The ...

Gene-Environment Interaction in Adults’ IQ Scores: Measures of Past and Present Environment

Gene-environment interaction was studied in a sample of young (mean age 26 years, N = 385) and older (mean age 49 years, N = 370) adult males and females. Full scale IQ scores (FSIQ) were analyzed using biometric models in which additive genetic (A), common environmental (C), and unique environmental (E) effects were allowed to depend on environmental measures. Moderators under ...

A General Test for Gene–Environment Interaction in Sib Pair-based Association Analysis of Quantitative Traits

Several association studies support the hypothesis that genetic variants can modify the influence of environmental factors on behavioral outcomes, i.e., G × E interaction. The case-control design used in these studies is powerful, but population stratification with respect to allele frequencies can give rise to false positive or false negative associations. Stratification with ...

Power Calculations Using Exact Data Simulation: A Useful Tool for Genetic Study Designs

Statistical power calculations constitute an essential first step in the planning of scientific studies. If sufficient summary statistics are available, power calculations are in principle straightforward and computationally light. In designs, which comprise distinct groups (e.g., MZ & DZ twins), sufficient statistics can be calculated within each group, and analyzed in a ...

Exploring the functional role of the CHRM2 gene in human cognition: results from a dense genotyping and brain expression study

Background The CHRM2 gene, located on the long arm of chromosome 7 (7q31-35), is involved in neuronal excitability, synaptic plasticity and feedback regulation of acetylcholine release, and has been implicated in higher cognitive processing. The aim of this study is the identification of functional (non)coding variants underlying cognitive phenotypic variation. Methods We ...

Accounting for sequential trial effects in the flanker task: Conflict adaptation or associative priming?

The conflict-control loop theory proposes that the detection of conflict in information processing triggers an increase in cognitive control, resulting in improved performance on the subsequent trial. This theory seems consistent with the robust finding that conflict susceptibility is reduced following correct trials associated with high conflict: the conflict adaptation effect. ...