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Official American Thoracic Society/Infectious Diseases Society of America/Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Clinical Practice Guidelines: Diagnosis of Tuberculosis in Adults and Children

Background. Individuals infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) may develop symptoms and signs of disease (tuberculosis disease) or may have no clinical evidence of disease (latent tuberculosis infection [LTBI]). Tuberculosis disease is a leading cause of infectious disease morbidity and mortality worldwide, yet many questions related to its diagnosis remain.

Official American Thoracic Society/Infectious Diseases Society of America/Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Clinical Practice Guidelines: Diagnosis of Tuberculosis in Adults and Children

Background. Individuals infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) may develop symptoms and signs of disease (tuberculosis disease) or may have no clinical evidence of disease (latent tuberculosis infection [LTBI]). Tuberculosis disease is a leading cause of infectious disease morbidity and mortality worldwide, yet many questions related to its diagnosis remain.

Endosomal MR1 Trafficking Plays a Key Role in Presentation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Ligands to MAIT Cells

Mucosal-Associated Invariant T (MAIT) cells, present in high frequency in airway and other mucosal tissues, have Th1 effector capacity positioning them to play a critical role in the early immune response to intracellular pathogens, including Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). MR1 is a highly conserved Class I-like molecule that presents vitamin B metabolites to MAIT cells. The ...

Human Lung Epithelial Cells Contain Mycobacterium tuberculosis in a Late Endosomal Vacuole and Are Efficiently Recognized by CD8+ T Cells

Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) is transmitted via inhalation of aerosolized particles. While alveolar macrophages are thought to play a central role in the acquisition and control of this infection, Mtb also has ample opportunity to interact with the airway epithelium. In this regard, we have recently shown that the upper airways are enriched with a population of non-classical, ...

TAP Mediates Import of Mycobacterium tuberculosis-Derived Peptides into Phagosomes and Facilitates Loading onto HLA-I

Processing and presentation of antigen on MHC-I class I molecules serves to present peptides derived from cytosolic proteins to CD8+ T cells. Infection with bacteria that remain in phagosomal compartments, such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), provides a challenge to this immune recognition as bacterial proteins are segregated from the cytosol. Previously we identified the Mtb ...

Human Mycobacterium tuberculosis CD8 T Cell Antigens/Epitopes Identified by a Proteomic Peptide Library

analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript. Competing Interests: David M. Lewinsohn and Deborah A. Lewinsohn have the following conflicts and conflict resolution. DML and DAL are co ... PLoS ONE policy. Required public discloser language required by OHSU follows: Aeras TB Vaccine Foundation, a non-profit organization has licensed technology from OHSU of which David M. Lewinsohn and

Low Levels of Peripheral CD161++CD8+ Mucosal Associated Invariant T (MAIT) Cells Are Found in HIV and HIV/TB Co-Infection

Background High expression of CD161 on CD8+ T cells is associated with a population of cells thought to play a role in mucosal immunity. We wished to investigate this subset in an HIV and Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) endemic African setting. Methods A flow cytometric approach was used to assess the frequency and phenotype of CD161++CD8+ T cells. 80 individuals were recruited ...

T Cell Inactivation by Poxviral B22 Family Proteins Increases Viral Virulence

Infections with monkeypox, cowpox and weaponized variola virus remain a threat to the increasingly unvaccinated human population, but little is known about their mechanisms of virulence and immune evasion. We now demonstrate that B22 proteins, encoded by the largest genes of these viruses, render human T cells unresponsive to stimulation of the T cell receptor by MHC-dependent ...

Mycobacterium tuberculosis Specific CD8+ T Cells Rapidly Decline with Antituberculosis Treatment

Rationale Biomarkers associated with response to therapy in tuberculosis could have broad clinical utility. We postulated that the frequency of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) specific CD8+ T cells, by virtue of detecting intracellular infection, could be a surrogate marker of response to therapy and would decrease during effective antituberculosis treatment. Objectives: We sought ...

The Mycobacterium tuberculosis Phagosome Is a HLA-I Processing Competent Organelle

Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) resides in a long-lived phagosomal compartment that resists maturation. The manner by which Mtb antigens are processed and presented on MHC Class I molecules is poorly understood. Using human dendritic cells and IFN-γ release by CD8+ T cell clones, we examined the processing and presentation pathway for two Mtb–derived antigens, each presented by a ...

A-Kinase Anchoring in Dendritic Cells Is Required for Antigen Presentation

Background Dendritic cells (DC) are the most potent antigen presenting cells (APC) of the immune system. Prostaglandin E2, cyclic AMP, and protein kinase A (PKA) have all been shown to regulate DC maturation and activity. In other cells, the ability of these molecules to convey their signals has been shown to be dependent on A-kinase anchoring proteins (AKAPs). Here we present ...

Differential Antigenic Hierarchy Associated with Spontaneous Recovery from Hepatitis C Virus Infection: Implications for Vaccine Design

BackgroundCellular immune responses play a central role in the control of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, and in some individuals the adaptive immune response can spontaneously eradicate HCV infection. The development of vaccine candidates to prevent the spread of this infection remains a top priority; however, understanding the correlates of effective immunological containment ...

Human Innate Mycobacterium tuberculosis–Reactive αβTCR+ Thymocytes

The control of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infection is heavily dependent on the adaptive Th1 cellular immune response. Paradoxically, optimal priming of the Th1 response requires activation of priming dendritic cells with Th1 cytokine IFN-γ. At present, the innate cellular mechanisms required for the generation of an optimal Th1 T cell response remain poorly characterized. We ...

An analysis of the epitope knowledge related to Mycobacteria

Background Tuberculosis, caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis, remains a leading cause of infectious disease morbidity and mortality, and is responsible for more than 2 million deaths a year. Reports about extremely drug resistant (XDR) strains have further heightened the sense of urgency for the development of novel strategies to prevent and treat TB. Detailed ...

Human Neonatal Dendritic Cells Are Competent in MHC Class I Antigen Processing and Presentation

Neonates are clearly more susceptible to severe disease following infection with a variety of pathogens than are adults. However, the causes for this are unclear and are often attributed to immunological immaturity. While several aspects of immunity differ between adults and neonates, the capacity of dendritic cells in neonates to process and present antigen to CD8+ T cells remains ...

Immunodominant Tuberculosis CD8 Antigens Preferentially Restricted by HLA-B

CD8+ T cells are essential for host defense to intracellular bacterial pathogens such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), Salmonella species, and Listeria monocytogenes, yet the repertoire and dominance pattern of human CD8 antigens for these pathogens remains poorly characterized. Tuberculosis (TB), the disease caused by Mtb infection, remains one of the leading causes of ...

Human Mucosal Associated Invariant T Cells Detect Bacterially Infected Cells

A first indication of the biological role of mucosal associated invariant T (MAIT) cells reveals that this discrete T cell subset is broadly reactive to bacterial infection. In particular MAIT cells recognize Mycobacterium tuberculosis-infected lung airway epithelial cells via the most evolutionarily conserved major histocompatibility molecule.