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A stilbene synthase allele from a Chinese wild grapevine confers resistance to powdery mildew by recruiting salicylic acid signalling for efficient defence

Stilbenes are central phytoalexins in Vitis, and induction of the key enzyme stilbene synthase (STS) is pivotal for disease resistance. Here, we address the potential for breeding resistance using an STS allele isolated from Chinese wild grapevine Vitis pseudoreticulata (VpSTS) by comparison with its homologue from Vitis vinifera cv. ‘Carigane’ (VvSTS). Although the coding regions ...

Mevalonate inhibits acid sphingomyelinase activity, increases sphingomyelin levels and inhibits cell proliferation of HepG2 and Caco-2 cells

, China. Rui-Dong Duan, MD, PhD , Gastroenterology and Nutrition Laboratory, Lund University , Lund Sweden Background: Sphingomyelin (SM) and cholesterol are two types of lipid closely related

An ancestral allele of grapevine transcription factor MYB14 promotes plant defence

Scholarship Council to Dong Duan. We gratefully acknowledge Joachim Daumann and Kerstin Huber (Karlsruhe Institute of Technology) for taking care of plants in the Botanical garden, and Claudia Vogel

Genetic diversity of stilbene metabolism in Vitis sylvestris

/European Regional Development Fund (ERDF), the German Federal Agency for Agriculture (Programme for Sustainable Agriculture, BÖLN), and by a fellowship from the Chinese Scholarship Council to Dong Duan. We

Chicken Fetal Liver DNA Damage and Adduct Formation by Activation-Dependent DNA-Reactive Carcinogens and Related Compounds of Several Structural Classes

The chicken egg genotoxicity assay (CEGA), which utilizes the liver of an intact and aseptic embryo-fetal test organism, was evaluated using four activation-dependent DNA-reactive carcinogens and four structurally related less potent carcinogens or non-carcinogens. In the assay, three daily doses of test substances were administered to eggs containing 9–11-day-old fetuses and the ...

Changes of activity and isoforms of alkaline sphingomyelinase (nucleotide pyrophosphatase phosphodiesterase 7) in bile from patients undergoing endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography

Background Alkaline sphingomyelinase (NPP7) is an ecto-enzyme expressed in intestinal mucosa, which hydrolyses sphingomyelin (SM) to ceramide and inactivates platelet activating factor. It is also expressed in human liver and released in the bile. The enzyme may have anti-tumour and anti-inflammatory effects in colon and its levels are decreased in patients with colon cancer and ...

Boswellic acid inhibits expression of acid sphingomyelinase in intestinal cells

Background Boswellic acid is a type of triterpenoids with antiinflammatory and antiproliferative properties. Sphingomyelin metabolism generates multiple lipid signals affecting cell proliferation, inflammation, and apoptosis. Upregulation of acid sphingomyelinase (SMase) has been found in several inflammation-related diseases such as inflammatory bowel diseases, atherosclerosis, ...

Curcumin inhibits cholesterol uptake in Caco-2 cells by down-regulation of NPC1L1 expression

Background Curcumin is a polyphenol and the one of the principle curcuminoids of the spice turmeric. Its antioxidant, anti-cancer and anti-inflammatory effects have been intensively studied. Previous in vivo studies showed that administration of curcumin also decreased cholesterol levels in the blood, and the effects were considered to be related to upregulation of LDL receptor. ...

Identification of one exon deletion of intestinal alkaline sphingomyelinase in colon cancer HT-29 cells and a differentiation-related expression of the wild-type enzyme in Caco-2 cells

Sphingomyelin (SM) metabolism in the gut has been implicated in colonic tumorigenesis. Intestinal alkaline sphingomyelinase (alk-SMase) hydrolyses SM in the intestinal content and at the brush border. The enzyme activity is decreased in the tissues of human colorectal tumours. This study examines whether site or chain-mutation of alk-SMase occurs in colon cancer HT-29 cells and ...

Boswellic acids trigger apoptosis via a pathway dependent on caspase-8 activation but independent on Fas/Fas ligand interaction in colon cancer HT-29 cells

Boswellic acids are the effective components of gum resin of Boswellia serrata, which has anti-inflammatory properties. Recent studies on brain tumors and leukemic cells indicate that boswellic acids may have antiproliferative and apoptotic effects with the mechanisms being not studied in detail. We studied their antiproliferative and apoptotic effects on colon cancer cells and the ...