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15 papers found.
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Different evolutionary trajectories of vaccine-controlled and non-controlled avian infectious bronchitis viruses in commercial poultry

To determine the genetic and epidemiological relationship of infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) isolates from commercial poultry to attenuated live IBV vaccines we conducted a phylogenetic network analysis on the full-length S1 sequence for Arkansas (Ark), Massachusetts (Mass) and Delmarva/1639 (DMV/1639) type viruses isolated in 2015 from clinical cases by 3 different diagnostic ...

Novel reassortant clade 2.3.4.4 avian influenza A (H5N8) virus in a grey heron in South Korea in 2017

We report the identification of a novel reassortant clade 2.3.4.4 H5N8 virus from a dead grey heron in Korea in 2017. Outbreaks of clade 2.3.4.4 H5 HPAIVs have been reported worldwide, and they have evolved into multiple genotypes among wild birds. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that this virus likely originated from Qinghai Lake and Western Siberia and further evolved through ...

Protection induced by virus-like particles containing Toxoplasma gondii microneme protein 8 against highly virulent RH strain of Toxoplasma gondii infection

Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) microneme protein 8 (MIC8) represents a novel, functional distinct invasion factor. In this study, we generated virus-like particles (VLPs) targeting Toxoplasma gondii MIC8 for the first time, and investigated the protection against highly virulent RH strain of T. gondii in a mouse model. We found that VLP vaccination induced Toxoplasma gondii-specific ...

Age is not a determinant factor in susceptibility of broilers to H5N2 clade 2.3.4.4 high pathogenicity avian influenza virus

In 2014–2015, the US experienced an unprecedented outbreak of H5 clade 2.3.4.4 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus. The H5N2 HPAI virus outbreak in the Midwest in 2015 affected commercial turkey and layer farms, but not broiler farms. To assess any potential genetic resistance of broilers and/or age-related effects, we investigated the pathogenesis and transmission of ...

Evaluation of protective efficacy induced by virus-like particles containing a Trichinella spiralis excretory-secretory (ES) protein in mice

Background The frequent outbreaks of human trichinellosis globally underscore the need to develop effective vaccine. We hypothesized that a novel vaccine could improve vaccine efficacy against Trichinella spiralis. Methods In this study, we developed virus-like particles (VLPs) containing the 53 KDa excretory/secretory (ES) protein of T. spiralis and the influenza matrix protein 1 ...

Activation of Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor Alpha Improves Aged and UV-Irradiated Skin by Catalase Induction

Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα) is a nuclear hormone receptor involved in the transcriptional regulation of lipid metabolism, fatty acid oxidation, and glucose homeostasis. Its activation stimulates antioxidant enzymes such as catalase, whose expression is decreased in aged human skin. Here we investigated the expression of PPARα in aged and ultraviolet ...

Chimeric Bivalent Virus-Like Particle Vaccine for H5N1 HPAI and ND Confers Protection against a Lethal Challenge in Chickens and Allows a Strategy of Differentiating Infected from Vaccinated Animals (DIVA)

Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) and Newcastle disease (ND) are considered as the most devastating poultry infections, owing to their worldwide distribution and economical threat. Vaccines have been widely used to control these diseases in the poultry industry in endemic countries. However, vaccination policy without differentiating infected animals from vaccinated animals ...

Pre-immune state induced by chicken interferon gamma inhibits the replication of H1N1 human and H9N2 avian influenza viruses in chicken embryo fibroblasts

Background Interferon gamma (IFN-γ), an immunoregulatory cytokine, is known to control many microbial infections. In a previous study, chicken interferon gamma (chIFN-γ) was found to be up-regulated following avian influenza virus (AIV) infection in specific pathogen-free chickens. We aimed to investigate whether the pre-immune state induced by chIFN-γ could generate an antiviral ...

Microneedle Vaccination Elicits Superior Protection and Antibody Response over Intranasal Vaccination against Swine-Origin Influenza A (H1N1) in Mice

Influenza is one of the critical infectious diseases globally and vaccination has been considered as the best way to prevent. In this study, immunogenicity and protection efficacy between intranasal (IN) and microneedle (MN) vaccination was compared using inactivated swine-origin influenza A/H1N1 virus vaccine. Mice were vaccinated by MN or IN administration with 1 μg of ...

Immunization with a Thermostable Newcastle Disease Virus K148/08 Strain Originated from Wild Mallard Duck Confers Protection against Lethal Viscerotropic Velogenic Newcastle Disease Virus Infection in Chickens

Newcastle disease (ND) is one of the most devastating poultry infections because of its worldwide distribution and accompanying economical threat. In the present study, we characterized the ND virus (NDV) K148/08 strain from wild mallard duck, with regard to safety, thermostability, immunogenicity, and protective efficacy against velogenic ND viral infection. The NDV K148/08 strain ...

Anti-Cancer Effect of Thiacremonone through Down Regulation of Peroxiredoxin 6

Thiacremonone (2, 4-dihydroxy-2, 5-dimethyl-thiophene-3-one) is an antioxidant substance as a novel sulfur compound generated from High-Temperature-High-Pressure-treated garlic. Peroxiredoxin 6 (PRDX6) is a member of peroxidases, and has glutathione peroxidase and calcium-independent phospholipase A2 (iPLA2) activities. Several studies have demonstrated that PRDX6 stimulates lung ...

Efficacy of Single Dose of a Bivalent Vaccine Containing Inactivated Newcastle Disease Virus and Reassortant Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza H5N1 Virus against Lethal HPAI and NDV Infection in Chickens

Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) and Newcastle disease (ND) are 2 devastating diseases of poultry, which cause great economic losses to the poultry industry. In the present study, we developed a bivalent vaccine containing antigens of inactivated ND and reassortant HPAI H5N1 viruses as a candidate poultry vaccine, and we evaluated its immunogenicity and protective efficacy ...

Protection against Chronic Hepatitis C Virus Infection after Rechallenge with Homologous, but Not Heterologous, Genotypes in a Chimpanzee Model

An open question for hepatitis C virus (HCV) vaccine development is whether the various genotypes of this virus protect against the development of chronic infection after heterologous infection with different genotypes. We approached this question by challenging chimpanzees that had recovered from HCV genotype 1a or 1b infection with 6 heterologous genotypes as well as with a ...

Significance of the Anti-E2 Response in Self-Limited and Chronic Hepatitis C Virus Infections in Chimpanzees and in Humans

To determine whether there was a correlation between the kinetics or frequency of antibody to mammalian-derived hepatitis C virus (HCV) second envelope protein (E2) and development of chronicity or self-limitation of HCV infections, serial sera were examined for anti-E2, anti-HCV with confirmation with Matrix 2.0 (Abbott Laboratories, Abbott Park, IL), and reverse ...

Passive Immunization with a Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1-Neutralizing Monoclonal Antibody in Hu-PBL-SCID Mice: Isolation of a Neutralization Escape Variant

A monoclonal antibody (694/98-D) directed toward the V3 loop of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) was evaluated for pre- and postexposure prophylaxis in SCID mice reconstituted with human peripheral blood lymphocytes (Hu-PBL-SCID). Fifty percent protection against the HIV-1LAI strain was obtained by preexposure administration of 1.32 mg/kg antibody. However, virus ...