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A pan-Arctic assessment of the status of marine social-ecological systems

Marine social-ecological conditions in the Arctic are rapidly changing. With many transboundary issues, such as shifting ranges of fisheries, biodiversity loss, sea ice retreat, economic development and pollution, greater pan-Arctic assessment and co-management are necessary. We adapted the Ocean Health Index (OHI) to compile pan-Arctic data and evaluate ocean health for nine...

Use of a counterfactual approach to evaluate the effect of area closures on fishing location in a tropical tuna fishery

Spatial closures are widely used in marine conservation and fisheries management and it is important to understand their contribution to achieving management objectives. Many previous evaluations of closed area effects have used before-after comparisons, which, without controlling for a full range of factors, cannot ascribe changes in fleet behaviour to area closures per se. In...

Pastoralists as Optimal Foragers? Reoccupation and Site Selection in the Deserts of Post-Soviet Kazakhstan

This study explores the drivers of site selection amongst livestock owners under conditions of increasing animal numbers following a low point in the 1990s. Our major goal was to understand whether livestock owners are acting as ‘optimal foragers,’ targeting areas of highest forage availability as they colonise previously empty areas. The results presented here suggest that they...

Characterising Wildlife Trade Market Supply-Demand Dynamics

The trade in wildlife products can represent an important source of income for poor people, but also threaten wildlife locally, regionally and internationally. Bushmeat provides livelihoods for hunters, traders and sellers, protein to rural and urban consumers, and has depleted the populations of many tropical forest species. Management interventions can be targeted towards the...

Modelling the Spatial Behaviour of a Tropical Tuna Purse Seine Fleet

Industrial tuna fisheries operate in the Indian, Atlantic and Pacific Oceans, but concerns over sustainability and environmental impacts of these fisheries have resulted in increased scrutiny of how they are managed. An important but often overlooked factor in the success or failure of tuna fisheries management is the behaviour of fishers and fishing fleets. Uncertainty in how a...

Drivers of the Distribution of Fisher Effort at Lake Alaotra, Madagascar

Understanding how fishers make decisions is important for improving management of fisheries. There is debate about the extent to which small-scale fishers follow an ideal free distribution (IFD) – distributing their fishing effort efficiently according to resource availability rather than being influenced by social factors or personal preference. Using detailed data from 1800...

Religious Relationships with the Environment in a Tibetan Rural Community: Interactions and Contrasts with Popular Notions of Indigenous Environmentalism

Representations of Green Tibetans connected to Buddhism and indigenous wisdom have been deployed by a variety of actors and persist in popular consciousness. Through interviews, participatory mapping and observation, we explored how these ideas relate to people’s notions about the natural environment in a rural community on the Eastern Tibetan plateau, in Sichuan Province, China...

Quantifying the Short-Term Costs of Conservation Interventions for Fishers at Lake Alaotra, Madagascar

Artisanal fisheries are a key source of food and income for millions of people, but if poorly managed, fishing can have declining returns as well as impacts on biodiversity. Management interventions such as spatial and temporal closures can improve fishery sustainability and reduce environmental degradation, but may carry substantial short-term costs for fishers. The Lake Alaotra...

Fishing for Space: Fine-Scale Multi-Sector Maritime Activities Influence Fisher Location Choice

The European Union and other states are moving towards Ecosystem Based Fisheries Management to balance food production and security with wider ecosystem concerns. Fishing is only one of several sectors operating within the ocean environment, competing for renewable and non-renewable resources that overlap in a limited space. Other sectors include marine mining, energy generation...

Interactions between human behaviour and ecological systems

E. J. Milner-Gulland * 0 0 Department of Life Sciences, Imperial College London , Silwood Park Campus, Buckhurst Road, Ascot SL5 7PY , UK Research on the interactions between human behaviour and ... do not necessarily reflect the views of the European Commission. E. J. Milner-Gulland Social ecological systems dynamics

Hunted Woolly Monkeys (Lagothrix poeppigii) Show Threat-Sensitive Responses to Human Presence

Responding only to individuals of a predator species which display threatening behaviour allows prey species to minimise energy expenditure and other costs of predator avoidance, such as disruption of feeding. The threat sensitivity hypothesis predicts such behaviour in prey species. If hunted animals are unable to distinguish dangerous humans from non-dangerous humans, human...

Deconstructing Community for Conservation: Why Simple Assumptions are Not Sufficient

Many conservation policies advocate engagement with local people, but conservation practice has sometimes been criticised for a simplistic understanding of communities and social context. To counter this, this paper explores social structuring and its influences on conservation-related behaviours at the site of a conservation intervention near Pipar forest, within the Seti Khola...

A bioeconomic analysis of bushmeat hunting

. Crookes, E. J. Milner-Gulland and N. Ankudey, unpublished data)). These species were also mentioned as important by hunters in the village surveys, and as being caught by both guns and snares. They are the ... rise in all bushmeat prices, and a substantial increase in the proportion of grasscutters on sale was observed, with all other species remaining relatively stable (D. J. Crookes, E. J. Milner-Gulland and

New directions in management strategy evaluation through cross-fertilization between fisheries science and terrestrial conservation

E. J. Milner-Gulland () Beatriz Arroyo Celine Bellard Julia Blanchard Nils Bunnefeld Miguel 0 Ecologie, Systematique et Evolution, UMR CNRS 8079, Univ Paris-Sud, 91405 Orsay, France 1 Instituto de ... licence and quotas are set annually. However, there is Meeting report. New directions in resource management E. J. Milner-Gulland et al. 721 a high rate of non-compliance, potentially owing to legal

Making Robust Policy Decisions Using Global Biodiversity Indicators

In order to influence global policy effectively, conservation scientists need to be able to provide robust predictions of the impact of alternative policies on biodiversity and measure progress towards goals using reliable indicators. We present a framework for using biodiversity indicators predictively to inform policy choices at a global level. The approach is illustrated with...