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Highly aggressive rat prostate tumors rapidly precondition regional lymph nodes for subsequent metastatic growth

Bergh, Sofia Halin BergstroÈm. Formal analysis: Kerstin StroÈmvall, Marie Lundholm, Elin Thysell, Anders Bergh, Sofia Halin BergstroÈm. Funding acquisition: Kerstin StroÈmvall, Anders Bergh, Sofia ... Halin BergstroÈm. Investigation: Kerstin StroÈmvall, Marie Lundholm, Elin Thysell, Anders Bergh, Sofia Halin BergstroÈm. Methodology: Kerstin StroÈmvall, Marie Lundholm, Elin Thysell, Anders Bergh

Aggressive rat prostate tumors reprogram the benign parts of the prostate and regional lymph nodes prior to metastasis

In order to grow and spread tumors need to interact with adjacent tissues. We therefore hypothesized that small but aggressive prostate cancers influence the rest of the prostate and regional lymph nodes differently than tumors that are more indolent. Poorly metastatic (Dunning AT1) or highly metastatic (Dunning MLL) rat prostate tumor cells were injected into the ventral...

Inhibition of the insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor potentiates acute effects of castration in a rat model for prostate cancer growth in bone

Prostate cancer (PCa) patients with bone metastases are primarily treated with androgen deprivation therapy (ADT). Less pronounced ADT effects are seen in metastases than in primary tumors. To test if acute effects of ADT was enhanced by concurrent inhibition of pro-survival insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), rats were inoculated with Dunning R3327-G tumor cells into the...

Extratumoral Heme Oxygenase-1 (HO-1) Expressing Macrophages Likely Promote Primary and Metastatic Prostate Tumor Growth

Aggressive tumors induce tumor-supporting changes in the benign parts of the prostate. One factor that has increased expression outside prostate tumors is hemoxygenase-1 (HO-1). To investigate HO-1 expression in more detail, we analyzed samples of tumor tissue and peritumoral normal prostate tissue from rats carrying cancers with different metastatic capacity, and human prostate...

High Lysyl Oxidase (LOX) in the Non-Malignant Prostate Epithelium Predicts a Poor Outcome in Prostate Cancer Patient Managed by Watchful Waiting

Lysyl oxidase (LOX) has been shown to both promote and suppress tumor progression, but its role in prostate cancer is largely unknown. LOX immunoreactivity was scored in prostate tumor epithelium, tumor stroma and in the tumor-adjacent non-malignant prostate epithelium and stroma. LOX scores in tumor and non-malignant prostate tissues were then examined for possible associations...

Characterization of Prostate Cancer Bone Metastases According to Expression Levels of Steroidogenic Enzymes and Androgen Receptor Splice Variants

Background Intra-tumoral steroidogenesis and constitutive androgen receptor (AR) activity have been associated with castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). This study aimed to examine if CRPC bone metastases expressed higher levels of steroid-converting enzymes than untreated bone metastases. Steroidogenic enzyme levels were also analyzed in relation to expression of...

Metabolomic Characterization of Human Prostate Cancer Bone Metastases Reveals Increased Levels of Cholesterol

Background Metastasis to the bone is one clinically important features of prostate cancer (PCa). Current diagnostic methods cannot predict metastatic PCa at a curable stage of the disease. Identification of metabolic pathways involved in the growth of bone metastases therefore has the potential to improve PCa prognostication as well as therapy. Methodology/Principal Findings...