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Associations between increased intervention coverage for mothers and newborns and the number and quality of contacts between families and health workers: An analysis of cluster level repeat cross sectional survey data in Ethiopia

analysis: Elizabeth Allen. Funding acquisition: Joanna Schellenberg, Tanya Marchant. Methodology: Elizabeth Allen, Joanna Schellenberg, Della Berhanu, Simon Cousens. Writing ± original draft: Elizabeth ... Allen, Tanya Marchant. Writing ± review & editing: Joanna Schellenberg, Della Berhanu, Simon Cousens, Tanya Marchant. 12 / 13 1. Black RE , Levin C , Walker N , Chou D , Liu L , Temmerman M

Does the Good Schools Toolkit Reduce Physical, Sexual and Emotional Violence, and Injuries, in Girls and Boys equally? A Cluster-Randomised Controlled Trial

We aimed to investigate whether the Good School Toolkit reduced emotional violence, severe physical violence, sexual violence and injuries from school staff to students, as well as emotional, physical and sexual violence between peers, in Ugandan primary schools. We performed a two-arm cluster randomised controlled trial with parallel assignment. Forty-two schools in one district...

Predicting invasive fungal disease due to Candida species in non-neutropenic, critically ill, adult patients in United Kingdom critical care units

Background Given the predominance of invasive fungal disease (IFD) amongst the non-immunocompromised adult critically ill population, the potential benefit of antifungal prophylaxis and the lack of generalisable tools to identify high risk patients, the aim of the current study was to describe the epidemiology of IFD in UK critical care units, and to develop and validate a...

Exploring sources of variability in adherence to guidelines across hospitals in low-income settings: a multi-level analysis of a cross-sectional survey of 22 hospitals

Background Variability in processes of care and outcomes has been reported widely in high-income settings (at geographic, hospital, physician group and individual physician levels); however, such variability and the factors driving it are rarely examined in low-income settings. Methods Using data from a cross-sectional survey undertaken in 22 hospitals (60 case records from each...

Plasmodium falciparum parasitaemia and clinical malaria among school children living in a high transmission setting in western Kenya

Background Malaria among school children is increasingly receiving attention, yet the burden of malaria in this age group is poorly defined. This study presents data on malaria morbidity among school children in Bungoma county, western Kenya. Method This study investigated the burden and risk factors of Plasmodium falciparum infection, clinical malaria, and anaemia among 2346...

Epidemiology of coinfection with soil transmitted helminths and Plasmodium falciparum among school children in Bumula District in western Kenya

Background Many school children living in Africa are infected with plasmodia and helminth species and are consequently at risk of coinfection. However, the epidemiology of such coinfection and the implications of coinfection for children’s health remain poorly understood. This study describes the epidemiology of Ascaris lumbricoides-Plasmodium and hookworm-Plasmodium coinfection...

Effect of Repeated Anthelminthic Treatment on Malaria in School Children in Kenya: A Randomized, Open-Label, Equivalence Trial

Background. School children living in the tropics are often concurrently infected with plasmodium and helminth parasites. It has been hypothesized that immune responses evoked by helminths may modify malaria-specific immune responses and increase the risk of malaria. Methods. We performed a randomized, open-label, equivalence trial among 2436 school children in western Kenya...

Diverse Perceptions of Stakeholder Engagement within an Environmental Modeling Research Team

Integrating stakeholder perspectives is increasingly important in environmental science as a growing number of research projects are justified with a “solutions” orientation prioritizing societal relevance. In earth systems modeling, there is potential for model developers to engage with stakeholders who may use modeling results to inform decisions about resource management and...

Oral Amoxicillin Versus Benzyl Penicillin for Severe Pneumonia Among Kenyan Children: A Pragmatic Randomized Controlled Noninferiority Trial

Background. There are concerns that the evidence from studies showing noninferiority of oral amoxicillin to benzyl penicillin for severe pneumonia may not be generalizable to high-mortality settings. Methods. An open-label, multicenter, randomized controlled noninferiority trial was conducted at 6 Kenyan hospitals. Eligible children aged 2–59 months were randomized to receive...

Using health worker opinions to assess changes in structural components of quality in a Cluster Randomized Trial

Background The ‘resource readiness’ of health facilities to provide effective services is captured in the structure component of the classical Donabedian paradigm often used for assessment of the quality of care in the health sector. Periodic inventories are commonly used to confirm the presence (or absence) of equipment or drugs by physical observation or by asking those in...

Development of a Bioluminescent Nitroreductase Probe for Preclinical Imaging

Bacterial nitroreductases (NTRs) have been widely utilized in the development of novel antibiotics, degradation of pollutants, and gene-directed enzyme prodrug therapy (GDEPT) of cancer that reached clinical trials. In case of GDEPT, since NTR is not naturally present in mammalian cells, the prodrug is activated selectively in NTR-transformed cancer cells, allowing high...

Initiating change locally in bullying and aggression through the school environment (INCLUSIVE): study protocol for a cluster randomised controlled trial

together with the lead study statistician Elizabeth Allen (EA) and the lead for the intervention team, Meg Wiggins (MW). The trial management group will meet monthly throughout the study, and report to the

Non-Participation during Azithromycin Mass Treatment for Trachoma in The Gambia: Heterogeneity and Risk Factors

Background There is concern that untreated individuals in mass drug administration (MDA) programs for neglected tropical diseases can reduce the impact of elimination efforts by maintaining a source of transmission and re-infection. Methodology/Principal Findings Treatment receipt was recorded against the community census during three MDAs with azithromycin for trachoma in The...

Comparison of Alternative Evidence Summary and Presentation Formats in Clinical Guideline Development: A Mixed-Method Study

Background Best formats for summarising and presenting evidence for use in clinical guideline development remain less well defined. We aimed to assess the effectiveness of different evidence summary formats to address this gap. Methods Healthcare professionals attending a one-week Kenyan, national guideline development workshop were randomly allocated to receive evidence packaged...

Moving towards Routine Evaluation of Quality of Inpatient Pediatric Care in Kenya

Background Regular assessment of quality of care allows monitoring of progress towards system goals and identifies gaps that need to be addressed to promote better outcomes. We report efforts to initiate routine assessments in a low-income country in partnership with government. Methods A cross-sectional survey undertaken in 22 ‘internship training’ hospitals across Kenya that...

The Good Schools Toolkit to prevent violence against children in Ugandan primary schools: study protocol for a cluster randomised controlled trial

Background We aim to evaluate the effectiveness of the Good School Toolkit, developed by Raising Voices, in preventing violence against children attending school and in improving child mental health and educational outcomes. Methods/design We are conducting a two-arm cluster randomised controlled trial with parallel assignment in Luwero District, Uganda. We will also conduct a...

Hospital outcomes for paediatric pneumonia and diarrhoea patients admitted in a tertiary hospital on weekdays versus weekends: a retrospective study

David Gathara 0 Grace Irimu 0 Harrison Kihara Christopher Maina Dorothy Mbori-Ngacha Julius Mwangi Elizabeth Allen Mike English 0 0 Centre for Geographic Medicine Research - Coast, KEMRI/Wellcome

Impact of Intermittent Screening and Treatment for Malaria among School Children in Kenya: A Cluster Randomised Trial

Katherine Halliday and colleagues conducted a cluster randomized controlled trial in Kenyan school children in an area of low to moderate malaria transmission to investigate the effect of intermittent screening and treatment of malaria on health and education. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary

Understanding Heterogeneity in the Impact of National Neglected Tropical Disease Control Programmes: Evidence from School-Based Deworming in Kenya

Background The implementation of soil-transmitted helminth (STH) treatment programmes occurs in varied environmental, social and economic contexts. Programme impact will be influenced by factors that affect the reduction in the prevalence and intensity of infections following treatment, as well as the subsequent rate of reinfection. To better understand the heterogeneity of...