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Search: authors:"Elizabeth R. Zell"

18 papers found.
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Temporal Association of Rotavirus Vaccine Introduction and Reduction in All-Cause Childhood Diarrheal Hospitalizations in South Africa

Background. The public health impact of rotavirus vaccination in African settings with a high human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection prevalence is yet to be established. We evaluated trends in all-cause diarrheal hospitalizations in Soweto, Johannesburg, before and after the introduction of rotavirus vaccine into South Africa's national immunization program in August 2009...

Incidence and Severity of Invasive Streptococcus pneumoniae, Group A Streptococcus, and Group B Streptococcus Infections Among Pregnant and Postpartum Women

Background. The epidemiology of streptococcal infection in pregnant and postpartum women is poorly described in recent literature. We used data from multistate surveillance for invasive Streptococcus pneumoniae, group A Streptococcus (GAS), and group B Streptococcus (GBS) infections to estimate disease incidence and severity in these populations. Methods. Cases were reported...

Racial Disparities in Invasive Streptococcus pneumoniae Infections, 1998–2009

Background. Before the introduction of 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7), invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) rates among blacks were twice the rates in whites. We measured the effects of trends in PCV7-type and non-PCV7-type IPD rates on racial disparities in overall IPD and estimated the proportion of IPD caused by serotypes included in the 13-valent pneumococcal...

Measles Elimination in the Americas: A Comparison Between Countries With a One-Dose and Two-Dose Routine Vaccination Schedule

Background. The Region of the Americas eliminated measles in 2002 through high first-dose routine measles vaccine coverage and vaccination campaigns every 4–6 years; a second routine dose at school entry was added in some countries. The impact of this second routine dose on measles elimination was evaluated. Methods. Data on socioeconomic factors, demographic characteristics...

Effectiveness of 7-Valent Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine Against Invasive Pneumococcal Disease in HIV-Infected and -Uninfected Children in South Africa: A Matched Case-Control Study

Background. South Africa introduced 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) in April 2009 using a 2 + 1 schedule (6 and 14 weeks and 9 months). We estimated the effectiveness of ≥2 PCV7 doses against invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)–infected and -uninfected children. Methods. IPD (pneumococcus identified from a normally sterile site...

Prevention of Antibiotic-Nonsusceptible Streptococcus pneumoniae With Conjugate Vaccines

Background. Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus) caused approximately 44000 US invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) cases in 2008. Antibiotic nonsusceptibility complicates IPD treatment. Using penicillin susceptibility breakpoints adopted in 2008, we evaluated antibiotic-nonsusceptible IPD trends in light of the introductions of a 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7...

Current Epidemiology and Trends in Invasive Haemophilus influenzae Disease—United States, 1989–2008

Background. With the introduction of Haemophilus influenzae serotype b (Hib) conjugate vaccines, there has been a dramatic reduction of Hib disease in young children and the epidemiological trends of invasive H. influenzae have shifted. Methods. Data were collected from active surveillance for invasive H. influenzae disease conducted through Active Bacterial Core surveillance...

Effect of Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine on Nasopharyngeal Colonization among Immunized and Unimmunized Children in a Community-Randomized Trial

Background.Pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) prevent vaccine serotype (VT) invasive disease; nonvaccine serotype (NVT) disease increases modestly. The impact of PCV on nasopharyngeal (NP) colonization is essential to understanding disease effects. Methods.We conducted a community-randomized controlled trial with catch-up vaccination through age 2 years investigating the...

Increasing Burden of Invasive Group B Streptococcal Disease in Nonpregnant Adults, 1990–2007

Background. Group B Streptococcus (GBS), traditionally considered to be a neonatal pathogen, is an important cause of morbidity and mortality among older adults and among those with underlying medical conditions. We used population-based surveillance to examine trends in adult GBS disease during the period 1990–2007 and to describe the epidemiology of adult GBS disease to guide...

Increased Prevalence of Pediatric Pneumococcal Serotypes in Elderly Adults

Background. Pneumococcal disease is most prevalent among young children and elderly adults. We explored whether similarities exist in the serotypes that cause disease in these 2 high-risk groups. Methods. With use of US population-based data from 1998–1999 (before the introduction of the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine [PCV7] as routine immunization for infants) from the...

Risk Factors for Invasive Pneumococcal Disease among Navajo Adults

, or interpretation of the data; or in the preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript. Dr. James P. Watt, Dr. Elizabeth R. Zell, and Sandra I. McCoy had full access to all of the data in the

Changes in Neisseria meningitidis Disease Epidemiology in the United States, 1998–2007: Implications for Prevention of Meningococcal Disease

Background In January 2005, a quadrivalent (serogroups A, C, Y, and W-135) meningococcal conjugate vaccine was licensed for use in adolescents. This report describes the epidemiologic features of meningococcal disease in the United States from January 1998 through December 2007, before and during implementation of adolescent quadrivalent meningococcal conjugate vaccination.

Effectiveness of the 23-Valent Polysaccharide Vaccine against Invasive Pneumococcal Disease in Navajo Adults

Invasive pneumococcal disease occurs 2–3-fold more often among Navajo adults than among adults in the general United States population. The objective of this observational study was to determine the effectiveness of the 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPV23) among Navajo adults. Active surveillance identified cases of invasive pneumococcal disease during 1996–1997...

The Influence of Chronic Illnesses on the Incidence of Invasive Pneumococcal Disease in Adults

Pneumococcal disease is more frequent and more deadly in persons with certain comorbidities. We used 1999 and 2000 data from the Active Bacterial Core surveillance (ABCs) and the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) to determine rates of invasive pneumococcal disease in healthy adults (⩾18 years old) and in adults with various high-risk conditions. The risks of invasive...

Association between Antimicrobial Resistance among Pneumococcal Isolates and Burden of Invasive Pneumococcal Disease in the Community

Treatment of infections with drug-resistant strains of Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus) may fail; whether drug resistance is associated with an increase in the number of serious infections in the community is unknown. We evaluated the relationship between the proportion of antimicrobial-resistant S. pneumoniae isolates and the number of cases of invasive pneumococcal...

Azithromycin Prophylaxis during a Hospital Outbreak of Mycoplasma pneumoniae Pneumonia

Outbreaks of Mycoplasma pneumoniae (MP) in closed communities can have a high attack rate and can last several months. Azithromycin chemoprophylaxis has not been evaluated as a means of limiting transmission. This randomized, double-blinded placebo-controlled trial of azithromycin was conducted among asymptomatic hospital employees during an MP outbreak. Oropharyngeal swabs were...

Preventability of Invasive Pneumococcal Disease and Assessment of Current Polysaccharide Vaccine Recommendations for Adults: United States, 2001–2003

Background. To prevent Streptococcus pneumoniae infection among persons at highest risk for invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD), the pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPV) is currently recommended for persons ⩾65 years old and persons 2–64 years old with certain underlying conditions. Policymakers have considered expanding recommendations for PPV to include persons who are 50...

Epidemiology of Invasive Group A Streptococcus Disease in the United States, 1995–1999

Severe invasive group A streptococcal (GAS) disease is believed to have reemerged during the past 10–20 years. We conducted active, laboratory, population-based surveillance in 5 US states (total population, 13,214,992). From 1 July 1995 through 31 December 1999, we identified 2002 episodes of invasive GAS (3.5 cases per 100,000 persons). Rates varied by age (higher among those...