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Real-World Effectiveness of Pentavalent Rotavirus Vaccine Among Bedouin and Jewish Children in Southern Israel

Background. Pentavalent rotavirus vaccine (RV5) was introduced into the Israeli National Immunization Program in January 2011. We determined RV5 vaccine effectiveness (VE) in southern Israel, a region characterized by 2 distinct populations: Bedouins living in a low- to middle-income, semirural setting, and Jews living in a high-income, urban setting. Methods. We enrolled vaccine...

Anticipating rotavirus vaccines – a pre-vaccine assessment of incidence and economic burden of rotavirus hospitalizations among children < 5 year of age in Libya, 2012-13

Background Libya introduced rotavirus vaccine in October 2013. We examined pre-vaccine incidence of rotavirus hospitalizations and associated economic burden among children < 5 years in Libya to provide baseline data for future vaccine impact evaluations. Methods Prospective, hospital-based active surveillance for rotavirus was conducted at three public hospitals in two cities...

Early Evidence of Impact of Monovalent Rotavirus Vaccine in Togo

Togo introduced monovalent rotavirus vaccine starting 19 June 2014. We compared all-cause acute gastroenteritis (AGE) hospitalizations and rotavirus-associated hospitalizations during the prevaccine period (July 2008–June 2014) to 1 year after vaccine introduction (July 2014–June 2015). The proportion of children with AGE who tested positive for rotavirus declined from 53% (645...

A Large Outbreak of Salmonella Paratyphi A Infection Among Israeli Travelers To Nepal

Background. In Asia, Salmonella Paratyphi A is an emerging infection, and travelers are increasingly at risk. During October 2009–November 2009, an outbreak in S. Paratyphi A infection was noted in Israeli travelers returning from Nepal. Methods. An outbreak investigation included a standardized exposure questionnaire admitted to all patients and medical chart abstraction...

Effectiveness of Pentavalent Rotavirus Vaccine Against a Diverse Range of Circulating Strains in Nicaragua

Background. Because >60 rotavirus strains have been reported worldwide, concerns exist about strain replacement after the introduction of rotavirus vaccines, particularly in developing countries with diverse strains and lower efficacy. Methods. We used the case-control design in 4 hospitals in Nicaragua to assess strain-specific vaccine effectiveness (VE) of a pentavalent...

The Changing Epidemiology of Human African Trypanosomiasis among Patients from Nonendemic Countries –1902–2012

Background Although human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) is uncommon among patients from non-endemic countries (NEC), there has been an increase in the number of cases reported in recent years. Methods A systematic review of the literature was performed. The number of incoming tourists to HAT endemic countries was obtained from the United Nations World Tourism Organization. All...

Human African Trypanosomiasis in a Traveler: Diagnostic Pitfalls

, Israel; The Mina and Everard Goodman Faculty of Life Sciences, Bar Ilan University , Ramat Gan , Israel 2 Authors' addresses: Eyal Meltzer , Eyal Leshem, Yechezkel Sidi, Shmuel Steinlauf, and Eli Schwartz

Reply to Jauréguiberry et al

CID Reply to Jaur e´guiberry et al. Potential conflicts of interest. All authors: no conflicts. 0 1 2 0 Potential conflicts of interest. All authors: no conflicts. Eyal Leshem, Eyal Meltzer, and Eli

Acute Schistosomiasis Outbreak: Clinical Features and Economic Impact

Background. Acute schistosomiasis (AS) is a systemic hypersensitivity reaction that has been recognized mostly in nonimmune travelers. Although the condition is self-limited, it can be severe. We describe an outbreak of AS in a group of travelers returning from Tanzania and estimate the disease burden. Methods. After we identified the index case, we initiated an epidemiological...

Laboratory-Confirmed Cholera and Rotavirus among Patients with Acute Diarrhea in Four Hospitals in Haiti, 2012–2013

Ali Ber Lucien , Nicole Freeman, Marisa Hast, Benjamin L. Nygren, Eyal Leshem, Stanley Juin, Michele B. Parsons, Deborah F. Talkington, Eric D. Mintz, John Vertefeuille, S. Arunmozhi Balajee, Jacques ... . Arunmozhi Balajee, Health Systems Reconstruction Office, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, E-mails: and . Eyal Leshem, Division of Viral Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and

Travel-Related Leptospirosis in Israel: A Nationwide Study

before definitive diagnosis because treatment shortens the duration of illness and reduces mortality.33,34 Received May 5, 2009. Accepted for publication July 14, 2009. Authors addresses: Eyal Leshem

Men Who Have Sex With Men, Risk Behavior, and HIV Infection: Integrative Analysis of Clinical, Epidemiological, and Laboratory Databases

(See the editorial commentary by Mayer and Mimiaga, on pages 1371–1373.) Background. Centralized data collection and analytic tools facilitate tracing HIV transmission trends at the patient-population level with increasing resolution, complementing behavioral studies while avoiding sampling biases. By several measures, the rate of HIV infection among men who have sex with men...