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First hospital outbreak of the globally emerging Candida auris in a European hospital

Background Candida auris is a globally emerging multidrug resistant fungal pathogen causing nosocomial transmission. We report an ongoing outbreak of C. auris in a London cardio-thoracic center between April 2015 and July 2016. This is the first report of C. auris in Europe and the largest outbreak so far. We describe the identification, investigation and implementation of...

Simple, Low-Cost Detection of Candida parapsilosis Complex Isolates and Molecular Fingerprinting of Candida orthopsilosis Strains in Kuwait by ITS Region Sequencing and Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism Analysis

Candida parapsilosis has now emerged as the second or third most important cause of healthcare-associated Candida infections. Molecular studies have shown that phenotypically identified C. parapsilosis isolates represent a complex of three species, namely, C. parapsilosis, C. orthopsilosis and C. metapsilosis. Lodderomyces elongisporus is another species phenotypically closely...

In vitro antimicrobial susceptibility testing of human Brucella melitensis isolates from Qatar between 2014 – 2015

Background Brucellosis is one of the most common zoonotic disease affecting humans and animals and is endemic in many parts of the world including the Gulf Cooperation Council region (GCC). The aim of this study was to identify the species and determine the antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of Brucella strains isolated from clinical specimens, from Qatar. Results We evaluated...

Molecular Epidemiology and In-Vitro Antifungal Susceptibility of Aspergillus terreus Species Complex Isolates in Delhi, India: Evidence of Genetic Diversity by Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism and Microsatellite Typing

Aspergillus terreus is emerging as an etiologic agent of invasive aspergillosis in immunocompromised individuals in several medical centers in the world. Infections due to A. terreus are of concern due to its resistance to amphotericin B, in vivo and in vitro, resulting in poor response to antifungal therapy and high mortality. Herein we examined a large collection of molecularly...

Paradoxical Immune Responses in Non-HIV Cryptococcal Meningitis

The fungus Cryptococcus is a major cause of meningoencephalitis in HIV-infected as well as HIV-uninfected individuals with mortalities in developed countries of 20% and 30%, respectively. In HIV-related disease, defects in T-cell immunity are paramount, whereas there is little understanding of mechanisms of susceptibility in non-HIV related disease, especially that occurring in...

Phylogeny of the industrial relevant, thermophilic genera Myceliophthora and Corynascus

Joost van den Brink Robert A. Samson Ferry Hagen Teun Boekhout Ronald P. de Vries 0 ) CBS-KNAW Fungal Biodiversity Centre , P.O. Box 85167, 3508 AD Utrecht, The Netherlands Species of the genus

Clonal Expansion and Emergence of Environmental Multiple-Triazole-Resistant Aspergillus fumigatus Strains Carrying the TR34/L98H Mutations in the cyp51A Gene in India

Azole resistance is an emerging problem in Aspergillus which impacts the management of aspergillosis. Here in we report the emergence and clonal spread of resistance to triazoles in environmental Aspergillus fumigatus isolates in India. A total of 44 (7%) A. fumigatus isolates from 24 environmental samples were found to be triazole resistant. The isolation rate of resistant A...

Low Diversity Cryptococcus neoformans Variety grubii Multilocus Sequence Types from Thailand Are Consistent with an Ancestral African Origin

. Henk David M. Aanensen Teun Boekhout Ferry Hagen Annemarie E. Brouwer Thomas S. Harrison Christl A. Donnelly Matthew C. Fisher Joseph Heitman, Duke University Medical Center, United States of America

Geographically Structured Populations of Cryptococcus neoformans Variety grubii in Asia Correlate with HIV Status and Show a Clonal Population Structure

Ferry Hagen Weihua Pan Sitali Simwami Matthew C. Fisher Retno Wahyuningsih Arunaloke Chakrabarti Anuradha Chowdhary Reiko Ikeda Saad J. Taj-Aldeen Ziauddin Khan Margaret Ip Darma Imran Ridhawati Sjam

Ancient Dispersal of the Human Fungal Pathogen Cryptococcus gattii from the Amazon Rainforest

Over the past two decades, several fungal outbreaks have occurred, including the high-profile ‘Vancouver Island’ and ‘Pacific Northwest’ outbreaks, caused by Cryptococcus gattii, which has affected hundreds of otherwise healthy humans and animals. Over the same time period, C. gattii was the cause of several additional case clusters at localities outside of the tropical and...

Microsatellite typing and susceptibilities of serial Cryptococcus neoformans isolates from Cuban patients with recurrent cryptococcal meningitis

Background Cryptococcus neoformans is commonly associated with meningoencephalitis in immunocompromised patients and occasionally in apparently healthy individuals. Recurrence of infection after initial treatment is not uncommon. We studied C. neoformans isolates from 7 Cuban patients with recurrent cryptococcal meningitis. Antifungal susceptibility and genotyping with...

Resistance of Asian Cryptococcus neoformans Serotype A Is Confined to Few Microsatellite Genotypes

Background Cryptococcus neoformans is a pathogenic yeast that causes cryptococcosis, a life threatening disease. The prevalence of cryptococcosis in Asia has been rising after the onset of the AIDS epidemic and estimates indicate more than 120 cases per 1,000 HIV-infected individuals per year. Almost all cryptococcal disease cases in both immunocompromised and immunocompetent...