evolution of primates, including humans, cultural evolution, and human population history Frank W. Marlowe is a retired lecturer in the Biological Anthropology Division, Department of Archaeology and
Rebecca Sear () Frank W. Marlowe 0 Department of Anthropology, Florida State University , 1847 West Tennessee Street, Tallahassee, FL 32306-7772 , USA 1 Department of Social Policy, London School of
Susan B. Racette 0 Frank W. Marlowe 0 Farid F. Chehab, University of California, San Francisco, United States of America 0 1 Department of Anthropology, Hunter College , New York , New York, United States
The ‘challenge hypothesis’ posits that testosterone facilitates reproductive effort (investment in male–male competition and mate-seeking) at the expense of parenting effort (investment in offspring and mates). Multiple studies, primarily in North America, have shown that men in committed relationships, fathers, or both maintain lower levels of testosterone than unpaired men. Data ...
. Marlowe 1 2 Thomas Reimchen, University of Victoria, Canada 0 0650574. David Perrett is supported by Unilever research. No funders had any role in the conduct or any other aspect of this paper 1 Funding