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Fixed-Dose Artesunate–Amodiaquine Combination vs Chloroquine for Treatment of Uncomplicated Blood Stage P. vivax Infection in the Brazilian Amazon: An Open-Label Randomized, Controlled Trial

Background. Despite increasing evidence of the development of Plasmodium vivax chloroquine (CQ) resistance, there have been no trials comparing its efficacy with that of artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs) in Latin America.

Characterization of Plasmodium vivax-associated admissions to reference hospitals in Brazil and India

Background The benign character formerly attributed to Plasmodium vivax infection has been dismantled by the increasing number of reports of severe disease associated with infection with this parasite, prompting the need for more thorough and comprehensive characterization of the spectrum of resulting clinical complications. Endemic areas exhibit wide variations regarding severe ...

P. vivax Malaria and Dengue Fever Co-infection: A Cross-Sectional Study in the Brazilian Amazon

Background Malaria and dengue are the most prevalent vector-borne diseases worldwide and represent major public health problems. Both are endemic in tropical regions, propitiating co-infection. Only few co-infection cases have been reported around the world, with insufficient data so far to enhance the understanding of the effects of co-infection in the clinical presentation and ...

Expression Levels of pvcrt-o and pvmdr-1 Are Associated with Chloroquine Resistance and Severe Plasmodium vivax Malaria in Patients of the Brazilian Amazon

Molecular markers associated with the increase of chloroquine resistance and disease severity in Plasmodium vivax are needed. The objective of this study was to evaluate the expression levels of pvcrt-o and pvmdr-1 genes in a group of patients presenting CQRPv and patients who developed severe complications triggered exclusively by P. vivax infection. Two different sets of patients ...

Lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzymes activity in Plasmodium vivax malaria patients evolving with cholestatic jaundice

Background Plasmodium vivax infection has been considered a benign and self-limiting disease, however, recent studies highlight the association between vivax malaria and life-threatening manifestations. Increase in reactive oxygen species has already been described in vivax malaria, as a result of the increased metabolic rate triggered by the multiplying parasite, and large ...

In vitro chloroquine resistance for Plasmodium vivax isolates from the Western Brazilian Amazon

Background Chloroquine (CQ) and primaquine (PQ) are still the drugs of choice to treat Plasmodium vivax malaria in many endemic areas, Brazil included. There is in vivo evidence for the P. vivax resistance to CQ in the Brazilian Amazon, where the increase in the proportion of P. vivax malaria parallels the increase of unusual clinical complications related to this species. In this ...

Clinical complications of G6PD deficiency in Latin American and Caribbean populations: systematic review and implications for malaria elimination programmes

Background Although G6PDd individuals are generally asymptomatic throughout their life, the clinical burden of this genetic condition includes a range of haematological conditions, including acute haemolytic anaemia (AHA), neonatal jaundice (NNJ) and chronic non-sphaerocytic anaemia (CNSA). In Latin America (LA), the huge knowledge gap regarding G6PDd is related to the scarce ...

Thrombocytopenia in Plasmodium vivax Malaria Is Related to Platelets Phagocytosis

Background Although thrombocytopenia is a hematological disorder commonly reported in malarial patients, its mechanisms are still poorly understood, with only a few studies focusing on the role of platelets phagocytosis. Methods and Findings Thirty-five malaria vivax patients and eight healthy volunteers (HV) were enrolled in the study. Among vivax malaria patients, ...

Pfatp6 molecular profile of Plasmodium falciparum isolates in the western Brazilian Amazon

Background Anti-malarial drug resistance has emerged as one of the biggest challenges confronting the worldwide effort to control malaria. The appearance of chloroquine and multi-drug resistance had devastating effects on therapeutic efficacy of former first-line agents. Artemisinin has proven to be an excellent therapeutic alternative to fill the void in chemotherapeutic options ...

Integrated vector management targeting Anopheles darlingi populations decreases malaria incidence in an unstable transmission area, in the rural Brazilian Amazon

Background Studies on vector behaviour should be conducted in order to evaluate the effectiveness of vector control measures on malaria protection in endemic areas of Latin America, where P. vivax predominates. This work aims to investigate the fauna of anopheline mosquitoes and verify the impact of integrated vector management in two colonization projects in the Careiro ...

High levels of IgG3 anti ICB2-5 in Plasmodium vivax-infected individuals who did not develop symptoms

Background Plasmodium vivax has the potential to infect 2.85 billion individuals worldwide. Nevertheless, the limited number of studies investigating the immune status of individuals living in malaria-endemic areas, as well as the lack of reports investigating serological markers associated with clinical protection, has hampered development of vaccines for P. vivax. It was ...

Clinical Profile of Concurrent Dengue Fever and Plasmodium vivax Malaria in the Brazilian Amazon: Case Series of 11 Hospitalized Patients

. Alexandre, Andre M. Siqueira, Gisely C. Melo, Joa o B. L. Gimaque, Michele S. Bastos, Regina M. P. Figueiredo, Ricardo C. Carvalho, Michel A. Tavares, Felipe G. Naveca, Pedro Alonso, Quique Bassat, Marcus V ... ' addresses: Belisa M. L. Magalha es, Marcia A. A. Alexandre, Andre M. Siqueira, Gisely C. Melo, Joa o B. L. Gimaque, Michele S. Bastos, Regina M. P. Figueiredo, Ricardo C. Carvalho, Michel A. Tavares, Felipe G