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Gut microbiome: a new player in gastrointestinal disease

Stiftingtalstrasse 6, 8010 Graz , Austria 1 Alexander Moschen 2 Gregor Gorkiewicz 3 Christian Doppler Laboratory for Mucosal Immunology & Division of Internal Medicine I, Department of Medicine, Medical University

Alterations in Gut Microbiome Composition and Barrier Function Are Associated with Reproductive and Metabolic Defects in Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS): A Pilot Study

Background Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common female endocrinopathy of unclear origin characterized by hyperandrogenism, oligo-/anovulation, and ovarian cysts. Women with PCOS frequently display overweight, insulin resistance, and systemic low-grade inflammation. We hypothesized that endotoxemia resulting from a leaky gut is associated with inflammation, insulin...

Campylobacter fetus Subspecies Contain Conserved Type IV Secretion Systems on Multiple Genomic Islands and Plasmids

The features contributing to differences in pathogenicity of the Campylobacter fetus subspecies are unknown. Putative factors involved in pathogenesis are located in genomic islands that encode a type IV secretion system (T4SS) and fic domain (filamentation induced by cyclic AMP) proteins, which may disrupt host cell processes. In the genomes of 27 C. fetus strains, three...

Effects of high doses of vitamin D3 on mucosa-associated gut microbiome vary between regions of the human gastrointestinal tract

Purpose Vitamin D is well known for its effects on bone mineralisation but has also been attributed immunomodulatory properties. It positively influences human health, but in vivo data describing vitamin D effects on the human gut microbiome are missing. We aimed to investigate the effects of oral vitamin D3 supplementation on the human mucosa-associated and stool microbiome as...

Distribution of CD4pos -, CD8pos – and Regulatory T Cells in the Upper and Lower Gastrointestinal Tract in Healthy Young Subjects

The gastrointestinal immune system is involved in the development of several autoimmune-mediated diseases, including inflammatory bowel disease, multiple sclerosis, and type 1 diabetes mellitus. Alterations in T-cell populations, especially regulatory T cells (Tregs), are often evident in patients suffering from these diseases. To be able to detect changes in T-cell populations...

Characterisation of Candida within the Mycobiome/Microbiome of the Lower Respiratory Tract of ICU Patients

Whether the presence of Candida spp. in lower respiratory tract (LRT) secretions is a marker of underlying disease, intensive care unit (ICU) treatment and antibiotic therapy or contributes to poor clinical outcome is unclear. We investigated healthy controls, patients with proposed risk factors for Candida growth in LRT (antibiotic therapy, ICU treatment with and without...

Comparative Genome Analysis of Campylobacter fetus Subspecies Revealed Horizontally Acquired Genetic Elements Important for Virulence and Niche Specificity

Campylobacter fetus are important animal and human pathogens and the two major subspecies differ strikingly in pathogenicity. C. fetus subsp. venerealis is highly niche-adapted, mainly infecting the genital tract of cattle. C. fetus subsp. fetus has a wider host-range, colonizing the genital- and intestinal-tract of animals and humans. We report the complete genomic sequence of C...

Alterations in the Colonic Microbiota in Response to Osmotic Diarrhea

Background & Aims Diseases of the human gastrointestinal (GI) tract are often accompanied by diarrhea with profound alterations in the GI microbiota termed dysbiosis. Whether dysbiosis is due to the disease itself or to the accompanying diarrhea remains elusive. With this study we characterized the net effects of osmotic diarrhea on the composition of the GI microbiota in the...

Vibrio cholerae Evades Neutrophil Extracellular Traps by the Activity of Two Extracellular Nucleases

The Gram negative bacterium Vibrio cholerae is the causative agent of the secretory diarrheal disease cholera, which has traditionally been classified as a noninflammatory disease. However, several recent reports suggest that a V. cholerae infection induces an inflammatory response in the gastrointestinal tract indicated by recruitment of innate immune cells and increase of...

Role of Klebsiella oxytoca in Antibiotic-Associated Diarrhea

Background. Klebsiella oxytoca was recently shown to be the causative agent of antibiotic-associated hemorrhagic colitis. Because it is unclear whether K. oxytoca also causes nonhemorrhagic antibiotic-associated diarrhea, our study investigated a possible association between K. oxytoca and that disorder. Methods. A total of 371 consecutive patients were recruited into 4 study...