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Preparation and in vitro/ex vivo evaluation of nanoemulsion for transnasal delivery of paliperidone

Chemistry and Quality Assurance, A. R. College of Pharmacy and G. H. Patel Institute of Pharmacy , Vallabh Vidynagar, Gujarat 388120 , India 1 & Mrunali R. Patel Paliperidone was formulated in mucoadhesive

GW-Bodies and P-Bodies Constitute Two Separate Pools of Sequestered Non-Translating RNAs

Non-translating RNAs that have undergone active translational repression are culled from the cytoplasm into P-bodies for decapping-dependent decay or for sequestration. Organisms that use microRNA-mediated RNA silencing have an additional pathway to remove RNAs from active translation. Consequently, proteins that govern microRNA-mediated silencing, such as GW182/Gw and AGO1, are ...

Skeletal muscle morphology in sarcopenia defined using the EWGSOP criteria: findings from the Hertfordshire Sarcopenia Study (HSS)

Background Sarcopenia is defined as the loss of muscle mass and function with age and is associated with decline in mobility, frailty, falls and mortality. There is considerable interest in understanding the underlying mechanisms. Our aim was to characterise muscle morphology changes associated with sarcopenia among community dwelling older men. Methods One hundred and five men ...

Aggregatibacter aphrophilus pacemaker endocarditis: a case report

Background Aggregatibacter bacteria are a rare cause of endocarditis in adults. They are part of a group of organisms known as HACEK – Haemophilus, Aggregatibacter, Cardiobacter, Eikenella, and Kingella. Among these organisms, several Haemophilus species have been reclassified under the genus Aggregatibacter. Very few cases of Aggregatibacter endocarditis in patients with pacemaker ...

Cellular Size as a Means of Tracking mTOR Activity and Cell Fate of CD4+ T Cells upon Antigen Recognition

mTOR is a central integrator of metabolic and immunological stimuli, dictating immune cell activation, proliferation and differentiation. In this study, we demonstrate that within a clonal population of activated T cells, there exist both mTORhi and mTORlo cells exhibiting highly divergent metabolic and immunologic functions. By taking advantage of the role of mTOR activation in ...

Exosomes Released from Breast Cancer Carcinomas Stimulate Cell Movement

For metastasis to occur cells must communicate with to their local environment to initiate growth and invasion. Exosomes have emerged as an important mediator of cell-to-cell signalling through the transfer of molecules such as mRNAs, microRNAs, and proteins between cells. Exosomes have been proposed to act as regulators of cancer progression. Here, we study the effect of exosomes ...

Evolutionary crossroads in developmental biology

0 Nipam H. Patel Editor, Development - Currently, most developmental biologists work on one or more of a relatively small number of experimental systems, such as Arabidopsis thaliana, Drosophila

A Transcriptomic Analysis of Cave, Surface, and Hybrid Isopod Crustaceans of the Species Asellus aquaticus

Cave animals, compared to surface-dwelling relatives, tend to have reduced eyes and pigment, longer appendages, and enhanced mechanosensory structures. Pressing questions include how certain cave-related traits are gained and lost, and if they originate through the same or different genetic programs in independent lineages. An excellent system for exploring these questions is the ...

Opsin Repertoire and Expression Patterns in Horseshoe Crabs: Evidence from the Genome of Limulus polyphemus (Arthropoda: Chelicerata)

Horseshoe crabs are xiphosuran chelicerates, the sister group to arachnids. As such, they are important for understanding the most recent common ancestor of Euchelicerata and the evolution and diversification of Arthropoda. Limulus polyphemus is the most investigated of the four extant species of horseshoe crabs, and the structure and function of its visual system have long been a ...

Effect of a Modified Saquinavir/Ritonavir Dosing Regimen with Lower Dose Lead-In Phase on QTc Interval, Pharmacokinetics, Antiviral Activity and Safety in Treatment-Naïve HIV-1-Infected Patients

Background Saquinavir/ritonavir (1000/100 mg twice daily [BID]) is associated with dose- and exposure-dependent prolongation of the QT interval. The QT risk is considered higher during the first week of therapy, when saquinavir peak exposure has been observed. A modified regimen with a lower dose lead-in phase may reduce potential saquinavir-/ritonavir-induced QT prolongations. ...

Should providers encourage realistic weight expectations and satisfaction with lost weight in commercial weight loss programs? a preliminary study

Background Attrition is a problem among patients who participate in commercial weight loss programs. One possible explanation is that if patients are unable to reach a weight that they expect to achieve, they may be more likely to drop out of treatment. This study investigated variables associated with attrition among 30 obese patients who completed a liquid meal replacement ...

Consequences of Low Dose Ionizing Radiation Exposure on the Hippocampal Microenvironment

The response of the brain to irradiation is complex, involving a multitude of stress inducible pathways that regulate neurotransmission within a dynamic microenvironment. While significant past work has detailed the consequences of CNS radiotherapy following relatively high doses (≥ 45 Gy), few studies have been conducted at much lower doses (≤ 2 Gy), where the response of the CNS ...

Targets of Wnt/ß-Catenin Transcription in Penile Carcinoma

Penile squamous cell carcinoma (PeCa) is a rare malignancy and little is known regarding the molecular mechanisms involved in carcinogenesis of PeCa. The Wnt signaling pathway, with the transcription activator ß-catenin as a major transducer, is a key cellular pathway during development and in disease, particularly cancer. We have used PeCa tissue arrays and multi-fluorophore ...

Association of Neuropeptide Y (NPY), Interleukin-1B (IL1B) Genetic Variants and Correlation of IL1B Transcript Levels with Vitiligo Susceptibility

Background Vitiligo is a depigmenting disorder resulting from loss of functional melanocytes in the skin. NPY plays an important role in induction of immune response by acting on a variety of immune cells. NPY synthesis and release is governed by IL1B. Moreover, genetic variability in IL1B is reported to be associated with elevated NPY levels. Objectives Aim of the present study ...

Decreasing NF-κB Expression Enhances Odontoblastic Differentiation and Collagen Expression in Dental Pulp Stem Cells Exposed to Inflammatory Cytokines

Inflammatory response in the dental pulp can alter the collagen matrix formation by dental pulp stem cells and lead to a delay or poor healing of the pulp. This inflammatory response is mediated by cytokines, including interleukin-1β and tumor necrosis factor-α. In this study, it is hypothesized that suppressing the actions of these inflammatory cytokines by knocking down the ...

Non-random Escape Pathways from a Broadly Neutralizing Human Monoclonal Antibody Map to a Highly Conserved Region on the Hepatitis C Virus E2 Glycoprotein Encompassing Amino Acids 412–423

A challenge for hepatitis C virus (HCV) vaccine development is to define epitopes that are able to elicit protective antibodies against this highly diverse virus. The E2 glycoprotein region located at residues 412–423 is conserved and antibodies to 412–423 have broadly neutralizing activities. However, an adaptive mutation, N417S, is associated with a glycan shift in a variant that ...

Hepatitis C Virus Cell-Cell Transmission and Resistance to Direct-Acting Antiviral Agents

Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is transmitted between hepatocytes via classical cell entry but also uses direct cell-cell transfer to infect neighboring hepatocytes. Viral cell-cell transmission has been shown to play an important role in viral persistence allowing evasion from neutralizing antibodies. In contrast, the role of HCV cell-cell transmission for antiviral resistance is ...

Role of Caveolae in Cardiac Protection

Myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury is a major cause of morbidity and mortality. The molecular signaling pathways involved in cardiac protection from myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury are complex. An emerging idea in signal transduction suggests the existence of spatially organized complexes of signaling molecules in lipid-rich microdomains of the plasma membrane known as ...