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Lung function in HIV-infected children and adolescents

BackgroundThe advent of antiretroviral therapy has led to the improved survival of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected children to adulthood and to HIV becoming a chronic disease in older children and adolescents. Chronic lung disease is common among HIV-infected adolescents. Lung function measurement may help to delineate the spectrum, pathophysiology and guide therapy...

Correction to: community-acquired pneumonia in children — a changing spectrum of disease

The published version of this article unfortunately contained an error. Corresponding author information included only the mailing address but not the affiliations. Full corresponding author information is given below. The publisher apologizes.

Community-acquired pneumonia in children — a changing spectrum of disease

Pneumonia remains the leading cause of death in children outside the neonatal period, despite advances in prevention and management. Over the last 20 years, there has been a substantial decrease in the incidence of childhood pneumonia and pneumonia-associated mortality. New conjugate vaccines against Haemophilus influenzae type b and Streptococcus pneumoniae have contributed to...

Lung ultrasound for the diagnosis of community-acquired pneumonia in children

Ultrasound (US) has been proposed as an alternative first-line imaging modality to diagnose community-acquired pneumonia in children. Lung US has the potential benefits over chest radiography of being radiation free, subject to fewer regulatory requirements, relatively lower cost and with immediate bedside availability of results. However, the uptake of lung US into clinical...

Intrathoracic tuberculous lymphadenopathy in children: a guide to chest radiography

Making the diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis in children can be difficult because microbiological confirmation is not often achieved. Diagnosis is therefore often based on clinical features in combination with chest radiograph findings. Chest radiographs can demonstrate lymphadenopathy of the hilar and para-tracheal regions on the anteroposterior view, and subcarinal...

Maternal blood contamination of collected cord blood can be identified using DNA methylation at three CpGs

Background Cord blood is a commonly used tissue in environmental, genetic, and epigenetic population studies due to its ready availability and potential to inform on a sensitive period of human development. However, the introduction of maternal blood during labor or cross-contamination during sample collection may complicate downstream analyses. After discovering maternal...

Pneumocystis pneumonia in South African children diagnosed by molecular methods

Background Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) is an important cause of hospitalization and mortality in HIV-infected children. However, the incidence of PCP has been underestimated due to poor sensitivity of diagnostic tests. The use of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for pneumocystis has enabled more reliable diagnosis. This study describes the incidence, clinical features and outcome...

Comparison of a Real-Time Multiplex PCR and Sequetyping Assay for Pneumococcal Serotyping

Background Pneumococcal serotype identification is essential to monitor pneumococcal vaccine effectiveness and serotype replacement. Serotyping by conventional serological methods are costly, labour-intensive, and require significant technical expertise. We compared two different molecular methods to serotype pneumococci isolated from the nasopharynx of South African infants...

Humoral Immune Responses to Pneumocystis jirovecii Antigens in HIV-Infected and Uninfected Young Children with Pneumocystis Pneumonia

J. Zar 0 Peter D. Walzer 0 Marta Feldmesser, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, United States of America 0 1 Department of Environmental Health, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine

Detection of Streptococcus pneumoniae from Different Types of Nasopharyngeal Swabs in Children

Interests: Prof. Heather J. Zar and Prof. Mark P. Nicol are members of the PLOS ONE Editorial Board. This does not alter the authors adherence to all the PLOS ONE policies on sharing data and materials

Advances in the Diagnosis of Pulmonary Tuberculosis in HIV-Infected and HIV-Uninfected Children

Tom G. Connell 0 Heather J. Zar 0 Mark P. Nicol () 0 0 of Clinical Laboratory Sciences, Institute for Infectious Diseases and Molecular Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, National Health

Xpert MTB/RIF Testing of Stool Samples for the Diagnosis of Pulmonary Tuberculosis in Children

In a pilot accuracy study, stool Xpert testing from 115 children with suspected pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) detected 8/17 (47%) culture-confirmed tuberculosis cases, including 4/5 (80%) HIV-infected and 4/12 (33%) HIV-uninfected children. Sputum Xpert detected 11/17 (65%) cases. Stool holds promise for PTB diagnosis in HIV-infected children.

Human rhinovirus infection in young African children with acute wheezing

Background Infections caused by human rhinoviruses (HRVs) are important triggers of wheezing in young children. Wheezy illness has increasingly been recognised as an important cause of morbidity in African children, but there is little information on the contribution of HRV to this. The aim of this study was to determine the role of HRV as a cause of acute wheezing in South...

A Blueprint to Address Research Gaps in the Development of Biomarkers for Pediatric Tuberculosis

Childhood tuberculosis contributes significantly to the global tuberculosis disease burden but remains challenging to diagnose due to inadequate methods of pathogen detection in paucibacillary pediatric samples and lack of a child-specific host biomarker to identify disease. Accurately diagnosing tuberculosis in children is required to improve case detection, surveillance...

Outcome of HIV-exposed uninfected children undergoing surgery

Jonathan S Karpelowsky 0 Alastair JW Millar 0 Nelleke van der Graaf Guido van Bogerijen Heather J Zar 0 Department of Pediatric Surgery, Red Cross War Memorial Children's Hospital, School of Child

Improved detection of Pneumocystis jirovecii in upper and lower respiratory tract specimens from children with suspected pneumocystis pneumonia using real-time PCR: a prospective study

Background Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) is a major cause of hospitalization and mortality in HIV-infected African children. Microbiologic diagnosis relies predominantly on silver or immunofluorescent staining of a lower respiratory tract (LRT) specimens which are difficult to obtain in children. Diagnosis on upper respiratory tract (URT) specimens using PCR has been reported...

Rapid Molecular Diagnosis of Pulmonary Tuberculosis in Children Using Nasopharyngeal Specimens

Background. A rapid diagnosis of pediatric pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) using Xpert MTB/RIF (Mycobacterium tuberculosis/rifampicin) automated testing on induced sputum (IS) is possible, but the capacity for performing IS is limited. The diagnosis using a nasopharyngeal aspirate (NPA), which can be non-invasively obtained, is desirable. Methods. Paired specimens (NPA and IS) were...

Adherence to isoniazid prophylaxis among HIV-infected children: a randomized controlled trial comparing two dosing schedules

Background Tuberculosis contributes significantly to morbidity and mortality among HIV-infected children in sub-Saharan Africa. Isoniazid prophylaxis can reduce tuberculosis incidence in this population. However, for the treatment to be effective, adherence to the medication must be optimized. We investigated adherence to isoniazid prophylaxis administered daily, compared to...

High incidence of antimicrobial resistant organisms including extended spectrum beta-lactamase producing Enterobacteriaceae and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in nasopharyngeal and blood isolates of HIV-infected children from Cape Town, South Africa

Background There is little information on nasopharyngeal (NP) flora or bacteremia in HIV-infected children. Our aim was to describe the organisms and antimicrobial resistance patterns in children enrolled in a prospective study comparing daily and three times weekly trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX) and isoniazid (INH) or placebo prophylaxis. Methods NP swabs were taken at...

Reversion and conversion of Mycobacterium tuberculosis IFN-γ ELISpot results during anti-tuberculous treatment in HIV-infected children

Background Recent interest has focused on the potential use of serial interferon gamma (IFN-γ) release assay (IGRA) measurements to assess the response to anti-tuberculous (TB) treatment. The kinetics of IFN-γ responses to Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) antigens in HIV-infected children during treatment have not however been previously investigated. Methods IFN-γ responses to...