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Environmental variation and rivers govern the structure of chimpanzee genetic diversity in a biodiversity hotspot

Background The mechanisms that underlie the diversification of tropical animals remain poorly understood, but new approaches that combine geo-spatial modeling with spatially explicit genetic data are providing fresh insights on this topic. Data about the diversification of tropical mammals remain particularly sparse, and vanishingly few opportunities exist to study endangered...

Regional Differences in Seasonal Timing of Rainfall Discriminate between Genetically Distinct East African Giraffe Taxa

Masai (Giraffa tippelskirchi), Reticulated (G. reticulata) and Rothschild's (G. camelopardalis) giraffe lineages in East Africa are morphologically and genetically distinct, yet in Kenya their ranges abut. This raises the question of how divergence is maintained among populations of a large mammal capable of long-distance travel, and which readily hybridize in zoos. Here we test...

The role of ecological variation in driving divergence of sexual and non-sexual traits in the red-backed fairy-wren (Malurus melanocephalus)

Background Many species exhibit geographic variation in sexual signals, and divergence in these traits may lead to speciation. Sexual signals may diverge due to differences in ecology if the environment constrains signal production or transmission. Alternatively, sexual signals may diverge stochastically through sexual selection or genetic drift, with little environmental...

Characterization of novel microsatellite loci for Myzomela cardinalis and M. rubrata honeyeaters, and cross-amplification in other species

Myzomela honeyeaters are distributed from eastern Austalia and Indonesia throughout the islands of the tropical Pacific, a biodiversity hotspot that is particularly vulnerable due to small population sizes, habitat destruction, and high levels of isolation between islands. We developed fourteen microsatellite loci for Myzomela honeyeaters from the tropical Pacific...

Economic Conditions Predict Prevalence of West Nile Virus

Understanding the conditions underlying the proliferation of infectious diseases is crucial for mitigating future outbreaks. Since its arrival in North America in 1999, West Nile virus (WNV) has led to population-wide declines of bird species, morbidity and mortality of humans, and expenditures of millions of dollars on treatment and control. To understand the environmental...

Pathogen-Host Associations and Predicted Range Shifts of Human Monkeypox in Response to Climate Change in Central Africa

Climate change is predicted to result in changes in the geographic ranges and local prevalence of infectious diseases, either through direct effects on the pathogen, or indirectly through range shifts in vector and reservoir species. To better understand the occurrence of monkeypox virus (MPXV), an emerging Orthopoxvirus in humans, under contemporary and future climate conditions...

Mapping the risk of avian influenza in wild birds in the US

Background Avian influenza virus (AIV) is an important public health issue because pandemic influenza viruses in people have contained genes from viruses that infect birds. The H5 and H7 AIV subtypes have periodically mutated from low pathogenicity to high pathogenicity form. Analysis of the geographic distribution of AIV can identify areas where reassortment events might occur...

Using Remote Sensing to Map the Risk of Human Monkeypox Virus in the Congo Basin

Trevon Fuller 7 Henri A. Thomassen 7 Prime M. Mulembakani 6 Sara C. Johnston 5 James O. Lloyd-Smith 11 12 Neville K. Kisalu 10 Timothee K. Lutete 6 Seth Blumberg 11 12 Joseph N. Fair 9 Nathan D