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The 60S ribosomal protein L13 is the most preferable reference gene to investigate gene expression in selected organs from turkeys and chickens, in context of different infection models

Evaluation of reference genes for expression studies in chickens and turkeys is very much limited and unavailable for various infectious models. In this study, eight candidate reference genes HMBS, HPRT1, TBP, VIM, TFRC, RPLP0, RPL13 and RPS7 were evaluated by five different algorithms (GeNorm, NormFinder, BestKeeper©, delta CT, RefFinder) to assess their stability. In order to ...

C-Terminal Amino Acids 471-507 of Avian Hepatitis E Virus Capsid Protein Are Crucial for Binding to Avian and Human Cells

The infection of chickens with avian Hepatitis E virus (avian HEV) can be asymptomatic or induces clinical signs characterized by increased mortality and decreased egg production in adult birds. Due to the lack of an efficient cell culture system for avian HEV, the interaction between virus and host cells is still barely understood. In this study, four truncated avian HEV capsid ...

Multi-Locus Typing of Histomonas meleagridis Isolates Demonstrates the Existence of Two Different Genotypes

Histomonas meleagridis is the aetiological agent of histomonosis or “blackhead disease”. Histomonosis is of special importance today, because there is no effective treatment to prevent its occurrence with considerable losses for the poultry industry. Despite its importance only a few molecular studies have yet been performed to investigate the degree of genetic diversity between ...

Cysteine Peptidases, Secreted by Trichomonas gallinae, Are Involved in the Cytopathogenic Effects on a Permanent Chicken Liver Cell Culture

Trichomonas gallinae, the aetiological agent of avian trichomonosis, was shown to secrete soluble factors involved in cytopathogenic effect on a permanent chicken liver (LMH) cell culture. The present study focused on the characterization of these molecules. The addition of specific peptidase inhibitors to the cell-free filtrate partially inhibited the monolayer destruction, which ...

Phylogeny of Parasitic Parabasalia and Free-Living Relatives Inferred from Conventional Markers vs. Rpb1, a Single-Copy Gene

Background Parabasalia are single-celled eukaryotes (protists) that are mainly comprised of endosymbionts of termites and wood roaches, intestinal commensals, human or veterinary parasites, and free-living species. Phylogenetic comparisons of parabasalids are typically based upon morphological characters and 18S ribosomal RNA gene sequence data (rDNA), while biochemical or ...