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49 papers found.
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B-type natriuretic peptides in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a systematic review

Background Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) have increased cardiovascular risk. Natriuretic peptides (NP) in other populations are useful in identifying cardiovascular disease, stratifying risk, and guiding therapy. Methods We performed a systematic literature review to examine NP in COPD, utilising Medline, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library. Results Fifty ...

Fear Expression Suppresses Medial Prefrontal Cortical Firing in Rats

The medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) plays a crucial role in emotional learning and memory in rodents and humans. While many studies suggest a differential role for the prelimbic (PL) and infralimbic (IL) subdivisions of mPFC, few have considered the relationship between neural activity in these two brain regions recorded simultaneously in behaving animals. Importantly, how ...

Predictors of hospitalization of tuberculosis patients in Montreal, Canada: a retrospective cohort study

Background Hospitalization is the most costly health system component of tuberculosis (TB) control programs. Our objectives were to identify how frequently patients are hospitalized, and the factors associated with hospitalizations and length-of-stay (LOS) of TB patients in a large Canadian city. Methods We extracted data from the Montreal TB Resource database, a retrospective ...

Enumerateblood – an R package to estimate the cellular composition of whole blood from Affymetrix Gene ST gene expression profiles

Background Measuring genome-wide changes in transcript abundance in circulating peripheral whole blood is a useful way to study disease pathobiology and may help elucidate the molecular mechanisms of disease, or discovery of useful disease biomarkers. The sensitivity and interpretability of analyses carried out in this complex tissue, however, are significantly affected by its ...

The application of health literacy measurement tools (collective or individual domains) in assessing chronic disease management: a systematic review protocol

Background The term “health literacy” (HL) was first coined in 1974, and its most common definition is currently defined as a person’s ability to access, understand, evaluate, communicate, and use health information to make decisions for one’s health. The previous systematic reviews assessing the effect of existing HL measurement tools on health outcomes have simply searched for ...

The Cognitive Role of the Globus Pallidus interna; Insights from Disease States

The motor symptoms of both Parkinson’s disease and focal dystonia arise from dysfunction of the basal ganglia, and are improved by pallidotomy or deep brain stimulation of the Globus Pallidus interna (GPi). However, Parkinson’s disease is associated with a greater degree of basal ganglia-dependent learning impairment than dystonia. We attempt to understand this observation in terms ...

The SYGMA programme of phase 3 trials to evaluate the efficacy and safety of budesonide/formoterol given ‘as needed’ in mild asthma: study protocols for two randomised controlled trials

Background In many patients with mild asthma, the low frequency of symptoms and the episodic nature of exacerbations make adherence to regular maintenance treatment difficult. This often leads to over-reliance on short-acting β 2 -agonist (SABA) reliever medication and under-treatment of the underlying inflammation, with poor control of asthma symptoms and increased risk of ...

Effectiveness of a pharmacist-driven intervention in COPD (EPIC): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

Background Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are often nonadherent with medications and have poor inhaler technique. Community pharmacists can help to improve health-related quality of life and overall outcomes in patients with COPD. We aim to measure the effectiveness of a systematic, pharmacist-driven intervention on patients with diagnosed COPD. ...

The impact of comorbidities on productivity loss in asthma patients

Background Health-related productivity loss is an important, yet overlooked, component of the economic burden of disease in asthma patients of a working age. We aimed at evaluating the effect of comorbidities on productivity loss among adult asthma patients. Methods In a random sample of employed adults with asthma, we measured comorbidities using a validated self-administered ...

Chemical Screens Identify Drugs that Enhance or Mitigate Cellular Responses to Antibody-Toxin Fusion Proteins

The intersection of small molecular weight drugs and antibody-based therapeutics is rarely studied in large scale. Both types of agents are currently part of the cancer armamentarium. However, very little is known about how to combine them in optimal ways. Immunotoxins are antibody-toxin gene fusion proteins engineered to target cancer cells via antibody binding to surface ...

Identification of source and sink populations for the emergence and global spread of the East-Asia clone of community-associated MRSA

Background Our understanding of the factors influencing the emergence, dissemination and global distribution of epidemic clones of bacteria is limited. ST59 is a major epidemic clone of community-associated MRSA in East Asia, responsible for extensive morbidity and mortality, but has a much lower prevalence in other parts of the world. The geographic origin of ST59 and its ...

Use of Finite Difference Time Domain Simulations and Debye Theory for Modelling the Terahertz Reflection Response of Normal and Tumour Breast Tissue

The aim of this work was to evaluate the capabilities of Debye theory combined with Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) methods to simulate the terahertz (THz) response of breast tissues. Being able to accurately model breast tissues in the THz regime would facilitate the understanding of image contrast parameters used in THz imaging of breast cancer. As a test case, the model was ...

Quantitative precision of optical frequency domain imaging: direct comparison with frequency domain optical coherence tomography and intravascular ultrasound

Kobayashi Hideki Kitahara Shigemitsu Tanaka Kozo Okada Takumi Kimura Fumiaki Ikeno Paul G. Yock Peter J. Fitzgerald Yasuhiro Honda No systematic validation study is available with optical frequency domain

Longitudinal stability of asthma characteristics and biomarkers from the Airways Disease Endotyping for Personalized Therapeutics (ADEPT) study

Background Asthma is a biologically heterogeneous disease and development of novel therapeutics requires understanding of pathophysiologic phenotypes. There is uncertainty regarding the stability of clinical characteristics and biomarkers in asthma over time. This report presents the longitudinal stability over 12 months of clinical characteristics and clinically accessible ...

Milk-derived bioactive peptides inhibit human endothelial-monocyte interactions via PPAR-γ dependent regulation of NF-κB

J Simpson Orina Belton Desmond J Fitzgerald 0 0 School of Medicine and Medical Science, UCD Conway Institute, University College Dublin , Belfield, Dublin 4 , Ireland 1 FHI, Food for Health Ireland

Promoting research and audit at medical school: evaluating the educational impact of participation in a student-led national collaborative study

Background Medical students often struggle to engage in extra-curricular research and audit. The Student Audit and Research in Surgery (STARSurg) network is a novel student-led, national research collaborative. Student collaborators contribute data to national, clinical studies while gaining an understanding of audit and research methodology and ethical principles. This study aimed ...

Sexual and Emotional Aspects are Distinct Components of Infidelity and Unique Predictors of Anticipated Distress

, R. S. , Chopik , W. J. , Fitzgerald , C. , & Strout , S. L. ( 2013 ). Was that cheating? Perceptions vary by sex, attachment anxiety, and behavior . Evolutionary Psychology , 11 , 159 - 171 . Maner

Empowering pharmacists in asthma management through interactive SMS (EmPhAsIS): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

. Bahadori K , Doyle-Waters MM , Marra C , Lynd L , Alasaly K , Swiston J , FitzGerald JM : Economic burden of asthma: a systematic review . BMC Pulm Med 2009 , 9 : 24 . 5. Statistics Canada: Asthma , by Sex

Gene flow in environmental Legionella pneumophila leads to genetic and pathogenic heterogeneity within a Legionnaires� disease outbreak

Background Legionnaires� disease is a severe form of pneumonia caused by the environmental bacterium Legionella pneumophila. Outbreaks commonly affect people with known risk factors, but the genetic and pathogenic complexity of L. pneumophila within an outbreak is not well understood. Here, we investigate the etiology of the major Legionnaires� disease outbreak that occurred in ...