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29 papers found.
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Why Is Apolipoprotein CIII Emerging as a Novel Therapeutic Target to Reduce the Burden of Cardiovascular Disease?

grant support from Merck Sharp & Dohme. Jan Borén declares grant support and personal fees from AstraZeneca, Sanofi-Aventis, NovoNordisk, and Amgen and personal fees from Merck Sharp & Dome. Human and

Depletion of ATP and glucose in advanced human atherosclerotic plaques

Objective Severe hypoxia develops close to the necrotic core of advanced human atherosclerotic plaques, but the energy metabolic consequences of this hypoxia are not known. In animal models, plaque hypoxia is also associated with depletion of glucose and ATP. ATP depletion may impair healing of plaques and promote necrotic core expansion. To investigate if ATP depletion is...

Triglyceride-Rich Lipoproteins and Remnants: Targets for Therapy?

agents is therefore warranted. Compliance with Ethical Standards Conflict of Interest M. Dallinga-Thie, J. Kroon and Jan Borén declare that they have no conflict of interest. John Chapman reports grants

Increased diet-induced fatty streak formation in female mice with deficiency of liver-derived insulin-like growth factor-I

The role of endocrine IGF-I for atherosclerosis is unclear. We determined the importance of circulating, liver-derived IGF-I for fatty streak formation in mice. Mice with adult, liver-specific IGF-I inactivation (LI-IGF-I−/− mice, serum IGF-I reduced by approximately 80 %) and control mice received an atherogenic (modified Paigen) diet between 6 and 12 months of age. At study end...

Overexpression of protein kinase STK25 in mice exacerbates ectopic lipid accumulation, mitochondrial dysfunction and insulin resistance in skeletal muscle

Aims/hypothesis Understanding the molecular networks controlling ectopic lipid deposition and insulin responsiveness in skeletal muscle is essential for developing new strategies to treat type 2 diabetes. We recently identified serine/threonine protein kinase 25 (STK25) as a critical regulator of liver steatosis, hepatic lipid metabolism and whole body glucose and insulin...

Improved Estimation of Human Lipoprotein Kinetics with Mixed Effects Models

Context Mathematical models may help the analysis of biological systems by providing estimates of otherwise un-measurable quantities such as concentrations and fluxes. The variability in such systems makes it difficult to translate individual characteristics to group behavior. Mixed effects models offer a tool to simultaneously assess individual and population behavior from...

Filter-Dense Multicolor Microscopy

Immunofluorescence microscopy is a unique method to reveal the spatial location of proteins in tissues and cells. By combining antibodies that are labeled with different fluorochromes, the location of several proteins can simultaneously be visualized in one sample. However, because of the risk of bleed-through signals between fluorochromes, standard multicolor microscopy is...

Protein kinase STK25 controls lipid partitioning in hepatocytes and correlates with liver fat content in humans

Aims/hypothesis Type 2 diabetes is closely associated with pathological lipid accumulation in the liver, which is suggested to actively contribute to the development of insulin resistance. We recently identified serine/threonine protein kinase 25 (STK25) as a regulator of liver steatosis, whole-body glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity in a mouse model system. The aim of...

Imaging of Intracellular and Extracellular ROS Levels in Atherosclerotic Mouse Aortas Ex Vivo: Effects of Lipid Lowering by Diet or Atorvastatin

Objective The first objective was to investigate if intracellular and extracellular levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) within the mouse aorta increase before or after diet-induced lesion formation. The second objective was to investigate if intracellular and extracellular ROS correlates to cell composition in atherosclerotic lesions. The third objective was to investigate if...

Minor Contribution of Endogenous GLP-1 and GLP-2 to Postprandial Lipemia in Obese Men

Context Glucose and lipids stimulate the gut-hormones glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-1, GLP-2 and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) but the effect of these on human postprandial lipid metabolism is not fully clarified. Objective To explore the responses of GLP-1, GLP-2 and GIP after a fat-rich meal compared to the same responses after an oral glucose tolerance test...

PAQR-2 Regulates Fatty Acid Desaturation during Cold Adaptation in C. elegans

C. elegans PAQR-2 is homologous to the insulin-sensitizing adiponectin receptors in mammals, and essential for adaptation to growth at 15°C, a low but usually acceptable temperature for this organism. By screening for novel paqr-2 suppressors, we identified mutations in genes involved in phosphatidylcholine synthesis (cept-1, pcyt-1 and sams-1) and fatty acid metabolism (ech-7...

Adipose Tissue-Derived Human Serum Amyloid A Does Not Affect Atherosclerotic Lesion Area in hSAA1+/−/ApoE−/− Mice

Chronically elevated serum levels of serum amyloid A (SAA) are linked to increased risk of cardiovascular disease. However, whether SAA is directly involved in atherosclerosis development is still not known. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of adipose tissue-derived human SAA on atherosclerosis in mice. hSAA1+/− transgenic mice (hSAA1 mice) with a specific...

ARF6 Regulates Neuron Differentiation through Glucosylceramide Synthase

The small GTPase ADP ribosylation factor 6 (ARF6) mediates endocytosis and has in addition been shown to regulate neuron differentiation. Here we investigated whether ARF6 promotes differentiation of Neuro-2a neuronal cells by modifying the cellular lipid composition. We showed that knockdown of ARF6 by siRNA in Neuro-2a cells increased neuronal outgrowth as expected. ARF6...

Increased Expression of the Very Low-Density Lipoprotein Receptor Mediates Lipid Accumulation in Clear-Cell Renal Cell Carcinoma

Clear-cell renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is, in most cases, caused by loss of function of the tumor suppressor gene von Hippel–Lindau, resulting in constitutive activation of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1α and expression of hypoxia-induced genes in normoxic conditions. Clear-cell RCC cells are characterized histologically by accumulation of cholesterol, mainly in its ester form...

Genetic Variation in SULF2 Is Associated with Postprandial Clearance of Triglyceride-Rich Remnant Particles and Triglyceride Levels in Healthy Subjects

ContextNonfasting (postprandial) triglyceride concentrations have emerged as a clinically significant cardiovascular disease risk factor that results from accumulation of remnant triglyceride-rich lipoproteins (TRLs) in the circulation. The remnant TRLs are cleared from the circulation by hepatic uptake, but the specific mechanisms involved are unclear. The syndecan-1 heparan...

Adiponectin Receptor 2 Deficiency Results in Reduced Atherosclerosis in the Brachiocephalic Artery in Apolipoprotein E Deficient Mice

Adiponectin has been shown to have beneficial cardiovascular effects and to signal through the adiponectin receptors, AdipoR1 and AdipoR2. The original aim of this study was to investigate the effect of combined AdipoR1 and AdipoR2 deficiency (AdipoR1-/-AdipoR2-/-) on atherosclerosis. However, we made the interesting observation that AdipoR1-/-AdipoR2-/- leads to embryonic...

Arachidonate 15-Lipoxygenase Type B Knockdown Leads to Reduced Lipid Accumulation and Inflammation in Atherosclerosis

Inflammation in the vascular wall is important for development of atherosclerosis. We have shown previously that arachidonate 15-lipoxygenase type B (ALOX15B) is more highly expressed in human atherosclerotic lesions than in healthy arteries. This enzyme oxidizes fatty acids to substances that promote local inflammation and is expressed in lipid-loaded macrophages (foam cells...

Cholesteryl Esters Accumulate in the Heart in a Porcine Model of Ischemia and Reperfusion

Myocardial ischemia is associated with intracellular accumulation of lipids and increased depots of myocardial lipids are linked to decreased heart function. Despite investigations in cell culture and animal models, there is little data available on where in the heart the lipids accumulate after myocardial ischemia and which lipid species that accumulate. The aim of this study...