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Treatment efficacy of azithromycin 1 g single dose versus doxycycline 100 mg twice daily for 7 days for the treatment of rectal chlamydia among men who have sex with men – a double-blind randomised controlled trial protocol

Background Rectal infection with Chlamydia trachomatis is one of the most common bacterial sexually transmissible infections among men who have sex with men (MSM) with diagnosis rates continuing to rise. Current treatment guidelines recommend either azithromycin 1 g single dose or doxycycline 100 mg twice daily for 7 days. However, there are increasing concerns about treatment...

Efficacy of Initial Antiretroviral Therapy for HIV-1 Infection in Adults: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of 114 Studies with up to 144 Weeks' Follow-Up

Background A comprehensive assessment of initial HIV-1 treatment success may inform study design and treatment guidelines. Methods Group-based, systematic review and meta-analysis of initial antiretroviral therapy studies, in adults, of ≥48 weeks duration, reported through December 31, 2012. Size-weighted, intention-to-treat efficacy was calculated. Parameters of study design...

HIV infection is associated with higher levels of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 and eotaxin among people with recent hepatitis C virus infection

Background Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection leads to more rapid progression of hepatitis C virus (HCV)-related liver fibrosis, which could be linked to differences in the severity of liver inflammation among HIV/HCV co-infected individuals compared to HCV mono-infected individuals. This study assessed the association of HIV co-infection with pro-inflammatory and pro...

Alanine aminotransferase, HCV RNA levels and pro-inflammatory and pro-fibrogenic cytokines/chemokines during acute hepatitis C virus infection

Background This study assessed the association of alanine-aminotransferase (ALT) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA levels with pro-inflammatory and pro-fibrogenic cytokines and chemokines during acute HCV infection to provide further insight into the potential HCV immunopathogenesis. Methods Participants in the ATAHC study, a prospective study of recent HCV infection, with...

A New Method for Assessing How Sensitivity and Specificity of Linkage Studies Affects Estimation

Background While the importance of record linkage is widely recognised, few studies have attempted to quantify how linkage errors may have impacted on their own findings and outcomes. Even where authors of linkage studies have attempted to estimate sensitivity and specificity based on subjects with known status, the effects of false negatives and positives on event rates and...

Comprehensive Pharmacokinetic, Pharmacodynamic and Pharmacogenetic Evaluation of Once-Daily Efavirenz 400 and 600 mg in Treatment-Naïve HIV-Infected Patients at 96 Weeks: Results of the ENCORE1 Study

support from Abbvie, Gilead Sciences, Merck Research Laboratories, Pfizer and ViiV Healthcare. Rebekah Puls, Janaki Amin, Deirdre Egan, Amanda Clarke, Dianne Carey and Praphan Phanuphak report no conflicts

HLA Alleles Association with Changes in Bone Mineral Density in HIV-1-Infected Adults Changing Treatment to Tenofovir-Emtricitabine or Abacavir-Lamivudine

and Janaki Amin declare no conflict of interest. Anthony Kelleher has received travel grant support from Merck Research Laboratories on two occasions since 2010 and from ViiV for consultancy work. David

Inaccurate Ascertainment of Morbidity and Mortality due to Influenza in Administrative Databases: A Population-Based Record Linkage Study

Background Historically, counting influenza recorded in administrative health outcome databases has been considered insufficient to estimate influenza attributable morbidity and mortality in populations. We used database record linkage to evaluate whether modern databases have similar limitations. Methods Person-level records were linked across databases of laboratory notified...

The Influence of Hepatitis C Virus Genetic Region on Phylogenetic Clustering Analysis

Sequencing is important for understanding the molecular epidemiology and viral evolution of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. To date, there is little standardisation among sequencing protocols, in-part due to the high genetic diversity that is observed within HCV. This study aimed to develop a novel, practical sequencing protocol that covered both conserved and variable regions...

Cerebrospinal Fluid Exposure of Efavirenz and Its Major Metabolites When Dosed at 400 mg and 600 mg Once Daily: A Randomized Controlled Trial

: Janaki Amin, Dianne Carey, Kymme CourtneyVega, Carlo Dazo, Anna Donaldson, Sean Emery, Natalie Espinosa, Peeraporn Kaew-on, Praphan Phanupak, Rebekah Puls, Kanitta Pussadee, Louise Tomkins, Sasiwimol

Characterization of Transcription Factor Phenotypes within Antigen-Specific CD4+ T Cells Using Qualitative Multiplex Single-Cell RT-PCR

Current research on antigen specific CD4+ T cells indicates that there is functional and phenotypic heterogeneity within these populations, but the extent of this heterogeneity is poorly described. The CD134/CD25 assay allows live isolation of antigen specific cells in vitro for down-stream molecular analysis. Antigen specific CD4+ T cells were examined at the molecular level by...

Raltegravir Non-Inferior to Nucleoside Based Regimens in SECOND-LINE Therapy with Lopinavir/Ritonavir over 96 Weeks: A Randomised Open Label Study for the Treatment Of HIV-1 Infection

Emery and Janaki Amin are a PLOS ONE Editorial Board members. This does not alter the authors' adherence to PLOS ONE Editorial policies and criteria. Randomisation was 1:1 to Control or RAL. Main outcome

Predictors of Limb Fat Gain in HIV Positive Patients Following a Change to Tenofovir-Emtricitabine or Abacavir-Lamivudine

, or preparation of the manuscript. Competing Interests: Allison Martin has received some research funding from Gilead Sciences. Janaki Amin declares no conflict of interest. David Cooper received

Patterns of Hepatitis C Virus RNA Levels during Acute Infection: The InC3 Study

Background Understanding the patterns of HCV RNA levels during acute hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection provides insights into immunopathogenesis and is important for vaccine design. This study evaluated patterns of HCV RNA levels and associated factors among individuals with acute infection. Methods Data were from an international collaboration of nine prospective cohorts of...

Changes in Bone Turnover and Bone Loss in HIV-Infected Patients Changing Treatment to Tenofovir-Emtricitabine or Abacavir-Lamivudine

Gilead Sciences, Janssen-Cilag, and Merck; and has served on advisory boards for Bristol-Myers Squibb, Gilead Sciences, GlaxoSmithKline/ViiV Healthcare, Janssen-Cilag, Merck and Roche. Janaki Amin declares

Trends in all cause and viral liver disease-related hospitalizations in people with hepatitis B or C: a population-based linkage study

Amin 0 Matthew G Law 0 0 National Centre in HIV Epidemiology and Clinical Research, The University of New South Wales , Sydney , Australia Background: Previous studies have reported an excess burden of

Quantitative HBsAg and HBeAg Predict Hepatitis B Seroconversion after Initiation of HAART in HIV-HBV Coinfected Individuals

Objective Anti-HBe seroconversion and HBsAg loss are important therapeutic endpoints in patients with hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. Quantitative measures of hepatitis B surface antigen (qHBsAg) and e antigen (qHBeAg) have been identified as potentially useful indicators of therapeutic response in HBV monoinfection. The aim of this study was to examine serological change...

Switching Virally Suppressed, Treatment-Experienced Patients to a Raltegravir-Containing Regimen Does Not Alter Levels of HIV-1 DNA

Background Current HIV-1 antiretroviral therapy (ART) greatly reduces virus replication but does not significantly affect the viral reservoir. Raltegravir, a recently introduced integrase inhibitor, could, at least theoretically, reduce residual viremia in patients on ART and affect the viral reservoir size. The aim of this study was to assess whether switching therapy in...