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Emergence of G12 and G9 rotavirus genotypes in the Central African Republic, January 2014 to February 2016

Chrysostom Gody 2 Jason M. Mwenda 7 Jean Fandema 1 Diane Waku‑Kouomou 6 Casimir Manengu 4 5 Thomas D'Aquin Koyazegbe 8 9 Mathew D. Esona 6 Michael D. Bowen 6 Ionela GouandijkaV‑asilache 1 0 Ulrich Aymard Ekomi

Effectiveness of Pentavalent Rotavirus Vaccine Under Conditions of Routine Use in Rwanda

Background. Rotavirus vaccine efficacy is lower in low-income countries than in high-income countries. Rwanda was one of the first low-income countries in sub-Saharan Africa to introduce rotavirus vaccine into its national immunization program. We sought to evaluate rotavirus vaccine effectiveness (VE) in this setting. Methods. VE was assessed using a case-control design. Cases...

Impact of Rotavirus Vaccination on Diarrheal Hospitalizations in Children Aged <5 Years in Lusaka, Zambia

Background. Monovalent rotavirus vaccine was introduced in the routine public health immunization program in Lusaka, Zambia, in January 2012 and was rolled out countrywide in November 2013. We examined the effect of rotavirus vaccination on hospitalization for all-cause acute gastroenteritis (AGE) and rotavirus-specific AGE at a large referral hospital in Lusaka. Methods. Data...

Early Evidence of Impact of Monovalent Rotavirus Vaccine in Togo

Togo introduced monovalent rotavirus vaccine starting 19 June 2014. We compared all-cause acute gastroenteritis (AGE) hospitalizations and rotavirus-associated hospitalizations during the prevaccine period (July 2008–June 2014) to 1 year after vaccine introduction (July 2014–June 2015). The proportion of children with AGE who tested positive for rotavirus declined from 53% (645...

The Economic Burden Attributable to a Child’s Inpatient Admission for Diarrheal Disease in Rwanda

Background Diarrhea is one of the leading causes of childhood morbidity and mortality. Hospitalization for diarrhea can pose a significant burden to health systems and households. The objective of this study was to estimate the economic burden attributable to hospitalization for diarrhea among children less than five years old in Rwanda. These data can be used by decision-makers...

Impact and Effectiveness of Monovalent Rotavirus Vaccine Against Severe Rotavirus Diarrhea in Ghana

Background. Ghana was among the first African nations to introduce monovalent rotavirus vaccine (RV1) into its childhood immunization schedule in April 2012. We aimed to assess the impact of vaccine introduction on rotavirus and acute gastroenteritis (AGE) hospitalizations and to estimate vaccine effectiveness (VE). Methods. Using data from 2 teaching hospitals, monthly AGE and...

Burden and Epidemiology of Rotavirus Diarrhea in Selected African Countries: Preliminary Results from the African Rotavirus Surveillance Network

Severe rotavirus diarrhea in children <5 years of age is a major public health problem; however, limited regional and country specific data on rotavirus disease burden are available from sub-Saharan Africa. In June 2006, the World Health Organization Regional Office for Africa initiated rotavirus surveillance in selected African countries. With use of standardized methodology...

Potential involvement of the immune system in the development of endometriosis

This article presents an overview of immunological factors and their role in the development of endometriosis, with emphasis on inflammatory cytokines, growth and adhesion factors. Although retrograde menstruation is a common phenomenon among women of reproductive age, not all women who have retrograde menstruation develop endometriosis. The development of endometriosis is...

EXPERIMENTAL INFECTION OF THE OLIVE BABOON (PAPIO ANUBIS) WITH PLASMODIUM KNOWLESI: SEVERE DISEASE ACCOMPANIED BY CEREBRAL INVOLVEMENT

, Idle O. Farah, Dorcas S. Yole, and Jason M. Mwenda, Institute of Primate Research, National Museums of Kenya , PO Box 24481, Karen, Nai- robi , Kenya. Jan A. M. Langermans and Alan W. Thomas, Depart