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Evolutionary divergence of the vertebrate TNFAIP8 gene family: Applying the spotted gar orthology bridge to understand ohnolog loss in teleosts

Comparative functional genomic studies require the proper identification of gene orthologs to properly exploit animal biomedical research models. To identify gene orthologs, comprehensive, conserved gene synteny analyses are necessary to unwind gene histories that are convoluted by two rounds of early vertebrate genome duplication, and in the case of the teleosts, a third round, ...

Super Resolution Microscopy Reveals that Caveolin-1 Is Required for Spatial Organization of CRFB1 and Subsequent Antiviral Signaling in Zebrafish

Understanding spatial distribution and dynamics of receptors within unperturbed membranes is essential for elucidating their role in antiviral signaling, but conventional studies of detergent-resistant membrane fractions cannot provide this information. Caveolae are integral to numerous signaling pathways and these membrane domains have been previously implicated in viral entry but ...

Developmental and tissue-specific expression of NITRs

Novel immune-type receptors (NITRs) are encoded by large multi-gene families and share structural and signaling similarities to mammalian natural killer receptors (NKRs). NITRs have been identified in multiple bony fish species, including zebrafish, and may be restricted to this large taxonomic group. Thirty-nine NITR genes that can be classified into 14 families are encoded on ...

The medaka novel immune-type receptor (NITR) gene clusters reveal an extraordinary degree of divergence in variable domains

Background Novel immune-type receptor (NITR) genes are members of diversified multigene families that are found in bony fish and encode type I transmembrane proteins containing one or two extracellular immunoglobulin (Ig) domains. The majority of NITRs can be classified as inhibitory receptors that possess cytoplasmic immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibition motifs (ITIMs). A much ...

A Candidate Mammalian DNA Methyltransferase Related to pmt1p of Fission Yeast

Jeffrey A. Yoder 0 Timothy H. Bestor 0 0 Department of Genetics and Development, College of Physicians and Surgeons of Columbia University , 701 West 168 Street, New York, NY 10032, USA Trace levels

Structure of human DNMT2, an enigmatic DNA methyltransferase homolog that displays denaturant-resistant binding to DNA

DNMT2 is a human protein that displays strong sequence similarities to DNA (cytosine-5)-methyltransferases (m5C MTases) of both prokaryotes and eukaryotes. DNMT2 contains all 10 sequence motifs that are conserved among m5C MTases, including the consensus S-adenosyl-l-methionine-binding motifs and the active site ProCys dipeptide. DNMT2 has close homologs in plants, insects and ...

Positive and negative selection of antigen-specific B cells in transgenic mice expressing variant forms of the VH1 (T15) heavy chain

Four variant forms of the V1 (T15-H chain) gene are synthesized in mice. Each V1 variant pairs with a distinct L chain to produce a binding site having specificity for phosphocholine (PC). Transgenic mice expressing variant forms of the V1 gene were analyzed to elucidate the factors driving B cell selection into the peripheral repertoire. In all four lines of H chain transgenic ...