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Attraction Propagation: A User-Friendly Interactive Approach for Polyp Segmentation in Colonoscopy Images

The article raised a user-friendly interactive approach-Attraction Propagation (AP) in segmentation of colorectal polyps. Compared with other interactive approaches, the AP relied on only one foreground seed to get different shapes of polyps, and it can be compatible with pre-processing stage of Computer-Aided Diagnosis (CAD) under the systematically procedure of Optical ...

Spatial hidden Markov chain models for estimation of petroleum reservoir categorical variables

Indicator variograms and transition probabilities are used to measure spatial continuity of petroleum reservoir categorical variables. Variogram-based Kriging variants are symmetric geostatistical methods, which cannot completely capture the complex reservoir spatial heterogeneity structure. The asymmetric spatial Markov chain (SMC) approaches employ transition probabilities to ...

Large-scale multiple testing in genome-wide association studies via region-specific hidden Markov models

Background Identifying genetic variants associated with complex human diseases is a great challenge in genome-wide association studies (GWAS). Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) arising from genetic background are often dependent. The existing methods, i.e., local index of significance (LIS) and pooled local index of significance (PLIS), were both proposed for modeling SNP ...

Dissecting microbial community structure and methane-producing pathways of a full-scale anaerobic reactor digesting activated sludge from wastewater treatment by metagenomic sequencing

Doctoral Program of Higher Education (20121103120010). Jianhua Guo acknowledges the support from the Australian Research Council Discovery Early Career Researcher Award (DE 130101401) and the University of

Ribavirin Inhibits Parrot Bornavirus 4 Replication in Cell Culture

Parrot bornavirus 4 is an etiological agent of proventricular dilatation disease, a fatal neurologic and gastrointestinal disease of psittacines and other birds. We tested the ability of ribavirin, an antiviral nucleoside analog with antiviral activity against a range of RNA and DNA viruses, to inhibit parrot bornavirus 4 replication in duck embryonic fibroblast cells. Two ...

Characterization of a new genotype of avian bornavirus from wild ducks

Background Avian bornaviruses (ABV) are a recently described group of intranuclear negative-stranded RNA viruses (Order Mononegavirales, Family Bornaviridae). At least 13 different ABV genotypes have been described. One genotype, the Canada goose genotype (ABV-CG), has been isolated from geese and swans and is widely distributed across North America. Results We have isolated and ...

Some inequalities for a LNQD sequence with applications

In this paper, some inequalities for a linearly negative quadrant dependent (LNQD) sequence are obtained. As their application, the asymptotic normality of the weight function estimate for a regression function is established, which extends the results of Roussas et al. (J. Multivar. Anal. 40:162-291, 1992) and Yang (Acta. Math. Sin. Engl. Ser. 23(6):1013-1024, 2007) for the strong ...

Burkholderia dabaoshanensis sp. nov., a Heavy-Metal-Tolerant Bacteria Isolated from Dabaoshan Mining Area Soil in China

Heavy-metal-tolerant bacteria, GIMN1.004T, was isolated from mine soils of Dabaoshan in South China, which were acidic (pH 2–4) and polluted with heavy metals. The isolation was Gram-negative, aerobic, non-spore-forming, and rod-shaped bacteria having a cellular width of 0.5−0.6 µm and a length of 1.3−1.8 µm. They showed a normal growth pattern at pH 4.0–9.0 in a temperature ...

A case–control study of risk factors for HIV-negative children with cryptococcal meningitis in Shi Jiazhuang, China

Background Although cryptococcal meningitis (CM) is an emerging disease worldwide, there have been few studies of the characteristics and risk factors of CM in children. Methods We used data collected from May 2007 through April 2012 in the Acute Meningitis-Encephalitis Syndrome Surveillance project in Shi Jiazhuang, China to describe the epidemiologic, clinical, and laboratory ...

Maximum likelihood estimates of two-locus recombination fractions under some natural inequality restrictions

Guo 1 0 Department of Statistics and Actuarial Science, The University of Hong Kong , Hong Kong , P. R. China 1 Key Laboratory for Applied Statistics of MOE and School of Mathematics and Statistics

Social Cognitive Role of Schizophrenia Candidate Gene GABRB2

The occurrence of positive selection in schizophrenia-associated GABRB2 suggests a broader impact of the gene product on population fitness. The present study considered the possibility of cognition-related GABRB2 involvement by examining the association of GABRB2 with psychosis and altruism, respectively representing psychiatric and psychological facets of social cognition. Four ...

Testing for homogeneity of gametic disequilibrium across strata

Background Assessing the non-random associations of alleles at different loci, or gametic disequilibrium, can provide clues about aspects of population histories and mating behavior and can be useful in locating disease genes. For gametic data which are available from several strata with different allele probabilities, it is necessary to verify that the strata are homogeneous in ...

Global transgenerational gene expression dynamics in two newly synthesized allohexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum) lines

Background Alteration in gene expression resulting from allopolyploidization is a prominent feature in plants, but its spectrum and extent are not fully known. Common wheat (Triticum aestivum) was formed via allohexaploidization about 10,000 years ago, and became the most important crop plant. To gain further insights into the genome-wide transcriptional dynamics associated with ...

Genome-Wide Analysis of Histone H3 Lysine9 Modifications in Human Mesenchymal Stem Cell Osteogenic Differentiation

Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) possess self-renewal and multi-lineage differentiation potentials. It has been established that epigenetic mechanisms such as histone modifications could be critical for determining the fate of stem cells. In this study, full human genome promoter microarrays and expression microarrays were used to explore the roles of histone modifications (H3K9Ac and ...

Genome-wide analysis of plant nat-siRNAs reveals insights into their distribution, biogenesis and function

Background Many eukaryotic genomes encode cis-natural antisense transcripts (cis-NATs). Sense and antisense transcripts may form double-stranded RNAs that are processed by the RNA interference machinery into small interfering RNAs (siRNAs). A few so-called nat-siRNAs have been reported in plants, mammals, Drosophila, and yeasts. However, many questions remain regarding the features ...

The Immunogenetics of Smallpox Vaccination

We hypothesized that individuals who develop fever after smallpox vaccination have genetically determined differences in their immune responses to vaccinia virus. We looked for an association between the development of fever and single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 19 candidate genes in 346 individuals previously assessed for clinical responses to smallpox vaccination. Fever ...