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China’s engagement with development assistance for health in Africa

Background As an emerging donor in health related development across the world, particularly towards Africa, the People’s Republic of China (PRC) has been increasing its influence within the field of global public health over the past few decades. Yet between the period of 2000 and 2013, little is known about the scope, scale and priority of China’s grant-making programs. Methods ...

Structure of unliganded membrane-proximal domains FN4-FN5-FN6 of DCC

medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. Lorenzo I. Finci, Jie Zhang, and

Integrative analysis of somatic mutations and transcriptomic data to functionally stratify breast cancer patients

Background Somatic mutations can be used as potential biomarkers for subtyping and predicting outcomes for cancer patients. However, cancer patients often carry many somatic mutations, which do not always concentrate on specific genomic loci, suggesting that the mutations may affect common pathways or gene interaction networks instead of common genes. The challenge is thus to ...

The Effect of Iron Fortification on Iron (Fe) Status and Inflammation: A Randomized Controlled Trial

Background Iron deficiency (ID) is common in toddlers in developing countries. Iron fortified or meat-based complementary foods may be effective to prevent ID. Objective Our objective was to compare iron status at 18 months and growth from 6 to 18 months in rural poor toddlers fed 3 different complementary foods. Methods The study was nested within a larger trial in which ...

Location and moment tensor inversion of small earthquakes using 3D Green’s functions in models with rugged topography: application to the Longmenshan fault zone

With dense seismic arrays and advanced imaging methods, regional three-dimensional (3D) Earth models have become more accurate. It is now increasingly feasible and advantageous to use a 3D Earth model to better locate earthquakes and invert their source mechanisms by fitting synthetics to observed waveforms. In this study, we develop an approach to determine both the earthquake ...

The risk of hospitalized infection following initiation of biologic agents versus methotrexate in the treatment of juvenile idiopathic arthritis

Background In the present study, we compared the incidence of hospitalized infection among children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) following initiation of treatment with biologic agents versus methotrexate (MTX). Methods We used national Medicaid claims data from 2000 through 2010 to create cohorts of children with JIA who were new users of tumor necrosis factor ...

Analysis of health care claims during the peri-transfer stage of transition from pediatric to adult care among juvenile idiopathic arthritis patients

Background To investigate the utilization of health care services before and after transfer from pediatric to adult rheumatology care in clinical practice. Methods Using US commercial claims data from January 2005 through August 2012, we identified individuals with a JIA diagnosis code from a pediatric rheumatologist followed by any diagnosis code from an adult rheumatologist. ...

Analysis of gene expression in the midgut of Bombyx mori during the larval molting stage

Background Insects can be models for understanding human intestinal infection and pathology. Molting, a special period during which the old insect cuticle is shed and a new one is produced, is crucial for insect development. Holometabolous insects may experience several larva-to-larva moltings to become larger, a pupal molt and adult eclosion to become adults. During the larval ...

Quality of life in Chinese family caregivers for elderly people with chronic diseases

Background Inadequate studies have been conducted in China to examine quality of life in family caregivers. Quality of life in family caregivers for elderly people with chronic diseases was evaluated, and the demographic and characteristic factors of both elderly people and their caregivers were explored. Methods The 36-Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36) was used to assess ...

Analysis of peginterferon β-1a exposure and Gd-enhanced lesion or T2 lesion response in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis patients

The effect of subcutaneous (SC) peginterferon β-1a exposure on reduction of gadolinium-enhanced (Gd+) lesion count over time was evaluated in patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) in a Phase 3 study (ADVANCE). Patients were randomized to receive SC injections of placebo (n = 500), 125 mcg every-2-weeks (n = 512), or 125 mcg every-4-weeks (n = 500) for 1 year, ...

Visceral Adipose MicroRNA 223 Is Upregulated in Human and Murine Obesity and Modulates the Inflammatory Phenotype of Macrophages

Obesity in humans and mice is typified by an activated macrophage phenotype in the visceral adipose tissue (VAT) leading to increased macrophage-mediated inflammation. microRNAs (miRNAs) play an important role in regulating inflammatory pathways in macrophages, and in this study we compared miRNA expression in the VAT of insulin resistant morbidly obese humans to a non-obese cohort ...

Identification of bacterial communities in sediments of Poyang Lake, the largest freshwater lake in China

Bacteria play a vital role in various biogeochemical processes in lacustrine sediment ecosystems. This study is among the first to investigate the spatial distribution patterns of bacterial community composition in the sediments of Poyang Lake, the largest freshwater lake of China. Sediment samples were collected from the main basins and mouths of major rivers that discharge into ...

Optical networks special issue based on selected IEEE ICOCN 2014 papers

, People's Republic of China 5 Calvin C. K. Chan, Chinese University of Hong Kong, Jie Zhang, Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications , PR China - reviewers. All these papers and talks are ... University of Alberta and the Canadian NSERC Industrial R&D Fellowship. Jie Zhang received his B.E. degree in Communication Engineering and his Ph.D. degree in Electromagnetic Field and Microwave Technology

Implementing Retail Category Management: a Model-Based Approach to Setting Optimal Markups

This study proposes a model-based approach for implementing retail category management (CM) with a focus on markup decisions. We construct a Bayesian econometric model that offers a comprehensive portrait of own- and cross-price effects on sales of individual brands in a category, as well as price reactions driven by their manufacturers’ price setting behavior. We then derive ...

The Role of the Carboxyl Terminus Helix C-D Linker in Regulating KCNQ3 K+ Current Amplitudes by Controlling Channel Trafficking

In the central and peripheral nervous system, the assembly of KCNQ3 with KCNQ2 as mostly heteromers, but also homomers, underlies “M-type” currents, a slowly-activating voltage-gated K+ current that plays a dominant role in neuronal excitability. KCNQ3 homomers yield much smaller currents compared to KCNQ2 or KCNQ4 homomers and KCNQ2/3 heteromers. This smaller current has been ...

Activation of Bt Protoxin Cry1Ac in Resistant and Susceptible Cotton Bollworm

Crystalline (Cry) proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) are used extensively for insect control in sprays and transgenic plants, but their efficacy is reduced by evolution of resistance in pests. Here we evaluated reduced activation of Cry1Ac protoxin as a potential mechanism of resistance in the invasive pest Helicoverpa armigera. Based on the concentration killing 50% of ...

PI(4)P Promotes Phosphorylation and Conformational Change of Smoothened through Interaction with Its C-terminal Tail

In Hedgehog (Hh) signaling, binding of Hh to the Patched-Interference Hh (Ptc-Ihog) receptor complex relieves Ptc inhibition on Smoothened (Smo). A longstanding question is how Ptc inhibits Smo and how such inhibition is relieved by Hh stimulation. In this study, we found that Hh elevates production of phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate (PI(4)P). Increased levels of PI(4)P promote, ...

Treatment of periodontal intrabony defects using autologous periodontal ligament stem cells: a randomized clinical trial

Background Periodontitis, which progressively destroys tooth-supporting structures, is one of the most widespread infectious diseases and the leading cause of tooth loss in adults. Evidence from preclinical trials and small-scale pilot clinical studies indicates that stem cells derived from periodontal ligament tissues are a promising therapy for the regeneration of lost/damaged ...

Patterns of resource utilization and cost for postmenopausal women with hormone-receptor–positive, human epidermal growth factor receptor-2–negative advanced breast cancer in Europe

Background Healthcare resource utilization in breast cancer varies by disease characteristics and treatment choices. However, lack of clarity in guidelines can result in varied interpretation and heterogeneous treatment management and costs. In Europe, the extent of this variability is unclear. Therefore, evaluation of chemotherapy use and costs versus hormone therapy across Europe ...