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An overview of concepts and approaches used in estimating the burden of congenital disorders globally

population with access to the relevant services. Compliance with ethical standards Conflict of interest Sowmiya Moorthie, Hannah Blencowe, Matthew Darlison, Joy Lawn, Pierpaolo Mastroiacovo, Joan K Morris

Chromosomal disorders: estimating baseline birth prevalence and pregnancy outcomes worldwide

Chromosomal disorders, of which Down syndrome is the most common, can cause multi-domain disability. In addition, compared to the general population, there is a higher frequency of death before the age of five. In many settings, large gaps in data availability have hampered policy-making, programme priorities and resource allocation for these important conditions. We have...

Trends in congenital anomalies in Europe from 1980 to 2012

from the European Union in the framework of the Health Programme (2008±2013) Author Contributions Conceptualization: Joan K. Morris, Maria Loane, Helen Dolk. Data curation: Ruth Greenlees, Marie ... -Dumoulin, Diana Wellesley. Formal analysis: Joan K. Morris, Anna L. Springett. Methodology: Joan K. Morris. Project administration: Ruth Greenlees. Writing ± original draft: Joan K. Morris. Writing

Occupational Exposure to Hydrazine and Subsequent Risk of Lung Cancer: 50-Year Follow-Up

Purpose Hydrazine is carcinogenic in animals, but there is inadequate evidence to determine if it is carcinogenic in humans. This study aimed to evaluate the association between hydrazine exposure and the risk of lung cancer. Methods The cause specific mortality rates of a cohort of 427 men who were employed at an English factory that produced hydrazine between 1945 and 1971 were...

Cost–benefit analysis of the polypill in the primary prevention of myocardial infarction and stroke

The primary prevention of cardiovascular disease is a public health priority. To assess the costs and benefits of a Polypill Prevention Programme using a daily 4-component polypill from age 50 in the UK, we determined the life years gained without a first myocardial infarction (MI) or stroke, together with the total service cost (or saving) and the net cost (or saving) per year...

Quantifying the health benefits of chronic disease prevention: a fresh approach using cardiovascular disease as an example

Nicholas J. Wald 0 Joan K. Morris 0 0 N. J. Wald (&) J. K. Morris Wolfson Institute of Preventive Medicine, Barts and The London School of Medicine and Dentistry, Queen Mary University of London

Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitor (SSRI) Antidepressants in Pregnancy and Congenital Anomalies: Analysis of Linked Databases in Wales, Norway and Funen, Denmark

Background Hypothesised associations between in utero exposure to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and congenital anomalies, particularly congenital heart defects (CHD), remain controversial. We investigated the putative teratogenicity of SSRI prescription in the 91 days either side of first day of last menstrual period (LMP). Methods and Findings Three population...

Haemoglobin level at birth is associated with short term outcomes and mortality in preterm infants

Background Blood volume and haemoglobin (Hb) levels are increased by delayed umbilical cord clamping, which has been reported to improve clinical outcomes of preterm infants. The objective was to determine whether Hb level at birth was associated with short term outcomes in preterm infants born at ≤32 weeks gestation. Methods Data were collected retrospectively from electronic...

Prevention of Neural Tube Defects: A Cross-Sectional Study of the Uptake of Folic Acid Supplementation in Nearly Half a Million Women

Background Taking folic acid supplements before pregnancy to reduce the risk of a neural tube defect (NTD) is especially important in countries without universal folic acid fortification. The extent of folic acid supplementation among women who had antenatal screening for Down’s syndrome and NTDs at the Wolfson Institute of Preventive Medicine, London between 1999 and 2012 was...

Randomized Polypill Crossover Trial in People Aged 50 and Over

Background A Polypill is proposed for the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease in people judged to be at risk on account of their age alone. Its efficacy in reducing cholesterol and blood pressure is uncertain. Methods We conducted a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled crossover trial of a Polypill among individuals aged 50+ without a history of cardiovascular...

Screening for Future Cardiovascular Disease Using Age Alone Compared with Multiple Risk Factors and Age

Background Risk factors such as blood pressure and serum cholesterol are used, with age, in screening for future cardiovascular disease (CVD) events. The value of using these risk factors with age compared with using age alone is not known. We compared screening for future CVD events using age alone with screening using age and multiple risk factors based on regular Framingham...

Reconciling the Evidence on Serum Homocysteine and Ischaemic Heart Disease: A Meta-Analysis

Background Results from genetic epidemiological studies suggest that raised serum homocysteine is a cause of ischaemic heart disease, but the results of randomised trials suggest otherwise. We aimed to update meta-analyses on each type of study using the latest published data and test a hypothesis based on antiplatelet therapy use in the trials to explain the discrepancy. Methods...