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Overviews of systematic reviews: great promise, greater challenge

international prospective register of systematic reviews—could play an important role in this coordinated effort through the linking of review teams. Acknowledgements Not applicable. Funding Joanne E. McKenzie ... interests Joanne E. McKenzie and Sue E. Brennan are both Associate Editors for Systematic Reviews and Joanne E. McKenzie is also the series editor for the ‘Overviews of systematic reviews: development and

Toward a comprehensive evidence map of overview of systematic review methods: paper 1—purpose, eligibility, search and data extraction

Steve McDonald 1 Joanne E. McKenzie 0 0 School of Public Health and Preventive Medicine, Monash University , 553 St Kilda Road, Melbourne, VIC 3004 , Australia 1 Cochrane Australia, School of Public

Toward a comprehensive evidence map of overview of systematic review methods: paper 1—purpose, eligibility, search and data extraction

Steve McDonald 1 Joanne E. McKenzie 0 0 School of Public Health and Preventive Medicine, Monash University , 553 St Kilda Road, Melbourne, VIC 3004 , Australia 1 Cochrane Australia, School of Public

Toward a comprehensive evidence map of overview of systematic review methods: paper 1—purpose, eligibility, search and data extraction

Steve McDonald 1 Joanne E. McKenzie 0 0 School of Public Health and Preventive Medicine, Monash University , 553 St Kilda Road, Melbourne, VIC 3004 , Australia 1 Cochrane Australia, School of Public

The quality of reporting in cluster randomised crossover trials: proposal for reporting items and an assessment of reporting quality

Background The cluster randomised crossover (CRXO) design is gaining popularity in trial settings where individual randomisation or parallel group cluster randomisation is not feasible or practical. Our aim is to stimulate discussion on the content of a reporting guideline for CRXO trials and to assess the reporting quality of published CRXO trials. Methods We undertook a...

Hand Sanitiser Provision for Reducing Illness Absences in Primary School Children: A Cluster Randomised Trial

In a cluster randomized trial, Patricia Priest and colleagues find that providing hand sanitizer along with hand hygiene education in primary school classrooms, compared with hand hygiene alone, does not reduce school absences. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary

The use of segmented regression in analysing interrupted time series studies: an example in pre-hospital ambulance care

Background An interrupted time series design is a powerful quasi-experimental approach for evaluating effects of interventions introduced at a specific point in time. To utilize the strength of this design, a modification to standard regression analysis, such as segmented regression, is required. In segmented regression analysis, the change in intercept and/or slope from pre- to...

The use of the cluster randomized crossover design in clinical trials: protocol for a systematic review

McDonald 0 Joanne E McKenzie 0 0 School of Public Health and Preventive Medicine, Monash University , Level 6 , The Alfred Centre , Melbourne, VIC 3004 , Australia 1 Pragmatic Clinical Trials Unit, Queen

Meta-analysis and The Cochrane Collaboration: 20 years of the Cochrane Statistical Methods Group

The Statistical Methods Group has played a pivotal role in The Cochrane Collaboration over the past 20 years. The Statistical Methods Group has determined the direction of statistical methods used within Cochrane reviews, developed guidance for these methods, provided training, and continued to discuss and consider new and controversial issues in meta-analysis. The contribution...

Economic Evaluation of Active Implementation versus Guideline Dissemination for Evidence-Based Care of Acute Low-Back Pain in a General Practice Setting

Introduction The development and publication of clinical practice guidelines for acute low-back pain has resulted in evidence-based recommendations that have the potential to improve the quality and safety of care for acute low-back pain. Development and dissemination of guidelines may not, however, be sufficient to produce improvements in clinical practice; further investment in...

An empirical investigation of the potential impact of selective inclusion of results in systematic reviews of interventions: study protocol

Background Systematic reviewers may encounter a multiplicity of outcome data in the reports of randomised controlled trials included in the review (for example, multiple measurement instruments measuring the same outcome, multiple time points, and final and change from baseline values). The primary objectives of this study are to investigate in a cohort of systematic reviews of...

Obstacles to researching the researchers: A case study of the ethical challenges of undertaking methodological research investigating the reporting of randomised controlled trials

Background Recent cohort studies of randomised controlled trials have provided evidence of within-study selective reporting bias; where statistically significant outcomes are more likely to be more completely reported compared to non-significant outcomes. Bias resulting from selective reporting can impact on meta-analyses, influencing the conclusions of systematic reviews, and in...

Implementing evidence-based recommended practices for the management of patients with mild traumatic brain injuries in Australian emergency care departments: study protocol for a cluster randomised controlled trial

Background Mild head injuries commonly present to emergency departments. The challenges facing clinicians in emergency departments include identifying which patients have traumatic brain injury, and which patients can safely be sent home. Traumatic brain injuries may exist with subtle symptoms or signs, but can still lead to adverse outcomes. Despite the existence of several high...

Recruitment difficulties in a primary care cluster randomised trial: investigating factors contributing to general practitioners' recruitment of patients

Background Recruitment of patients by health professionals is reported as one of the most challenging steps when undertaking studies in primary care settings. Numerous investigations of the barriers to patient recruitment in trials which recruit patients to receive an intervention have been published. However, we are not aware of any studies that have reported on the recruitment...

Improving the care of people with traumatic brain injury through the Neurotrauma Evidence Translation (NET) program: protocol for a program of research

Bosch Joanne E McKenzie 0 Denise A O'Connor 0 Emma J Tavender Peter Bragge Marisa Chau Veronica Pitt Jeffrey V Rosenfeld Russell L Gruen 0 School of Public Health and Preventive Medicine, Monash

Evidence-based care of older people with suspected cognitive impairment in general practice: protocol for the IRIS cluster randomised trial

Joanne E McKenzie 0 Simon D French 0 Denise A O'Connor 0 Duncan S Mortimer Colette J Browning Grant M Russell Jeremy M Grimshaw Martin P Eccles Jill J Francis Susan Michie Kerry Murphy 0 Fiona

Hand sanitisers for reducing illness absences in primary school children in New Zealand: a cluster randomised controlled trial study protocol

Background New Zealand has relatively high rates of morbidity and mortality from infectious disease compared with other OECD countries, with infectious disease being more prevalent in children compared with others in the population. Consequences of infectious disease in children may have significant economic and social impact beyond the direct effects of the disease on the health...

Evaluation of a Theory-Informed Implementation Intervention for the Management of Acute Low Back Pain in General Medical Practice: The IMPLEMENT Cluster Randomised Trial

Introduction This cluster randomised trial evaluated an intervention to decrease x-ray referrals and increase giving advice to stay active for people with acute low back pain (LBP) in general practice. Methods General practices were randomised to either access to a guideline for acute LBP (control) or facilitated interactive workshops (intervention). We measured behavioural...

Developing theory-informed behaviour change interventions to implement evidence into practice: a systematic approach using the Theoretical Domains Framework

Background There is little systematic operational guidance about how best to develop complex interventions to reduce the gap between practice and evidence. This article is one in a Series of articles documenting the development and use of the Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF) to advance the science of implementation research. Methods The intervention was developed considering...

Protocol for economic evaluation alongside the IMPLEMENT cluster randomised controlled trial

Background The recent development and publication of evidence-based clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) for acute low back pain (LBP) has resulted in evidence-based recommendations that, if implemented, have the potential to improve the quality and safety of care for acute LBP. While a strategy has been specified for dissemination of the CPG for acute LBP in Australia, there is...