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18 papers found.
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A Randomized, Controlled, Observer-Blinded Phase 1 Study of the Safety and Immunogenicity of a Respiratory Syncytial Virus Vaccine With or Without Alum Adjuvant

Background. Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a leading cause of childhood bronchiolitis and pneumonia, particularly in early infancy. Immunization of pregnant women could boost preexisting immune responses, providing passive protection to newborns through placental transfer of anti-RSV antibody. Methods. In this first-in-humans clinical trial of a purified recombinant RSV ...

Respiratory syncytial virus - associated intensive care unit admission in children in Southern China

Background There are incomplete data on the global burden of viral lower respiratory tract infection, in particular the role of Respiratory Syncytial Virus, in children requiring health services. Findings In this study set in a large urban area of southern China from 1 January 2007 to 31 December 2010, children 1 month to 14 years of age with RSV-associated “severe” or “very severe ...

Implementation of a universal rotavirus vaccination program: comparison of two delivery systems

was funded by an investigator-initiated grant from GlaxoSmithKline, Canada. MURVP Authors Beth A. Halperin (Dalhousie University), Scott A. Halperin (Dalhousie University), Joanne M. Langley (Dalhousie

A randomized, controlled non-inferiority trial comparing A(H1N1)pmd09 vaccine antigen, with and without AS03 adjuvant system, co-administered or sequentially administered with an inactivated trivalent seasonal influenza vaccine

Background At the time of the influenza A(H1N1)pmd09 pandemic it was not known if concurrent or sequential administration of seasonal trivalent influenza vaccine (TIV) with pandemic vaccine was preferred. Methods Immunogenicity and safety were assessed in 871 healthy subjects aged 19–40 years who were randomised into six groups to receive co-administration or sequential ...

The Geographic Synchrony of Seasonal Influenza: A Waves across Canada and the United States

Background As observed during the 2009 pandemic, a novel influenza virus can spread globally before the epidemic peaks locally. As consistencies in the relative timing and direction of spread could form the basis for an early alert system, the objectives of this study were to use the case-based reporting system for laboratory confirmed influenza from the Canadian FluWatch ...

Invasive candidiasis in low birth weight preterm infants: risk factors, clinical course and outcome in a prospective multicenter study of cases and their matched controls

Background This multicenter prospective study of invasive candidiasis (IC) was carried out to determine the risk factors for, incidence of, clinical and laboratory features, treatment and outcome of IC in infants of birth weight <1250 g. Methods Neonates <1250 g with IC and their matched controls (2:1) were followed longitudinally and descriptive analysis was performed. Survivors ...

Pneumococcal and influenza immunization in asplenic persons: a retrospective population-based cohort study 1990-2002

Background Splenectomy is associated with increased risk for bacteremia, due to impaired clearance of bloodborne agents and to altered phagocytosis and humoral immunity. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of patients at risk for splenectomy for a 13-year period to determine immunization coverage, and outcomes of those with and without splenectomy, and with or without receipt ...

Immunogenicity and Safety of an Inactivated Quadrivalent Influenza Vaccine Candidate: A Phase III Randomized Controlled Trial in Children

Background. Mismatch between circulating influenza B viruses (Yamagata and Victoria lineages) and vaccine strains occurs frequently. Methods. In a randomized controlled trial, immunogenicity and safety of an inactivated quadrivalent influenza vaccine candidate (QIV) versus trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (TIV)-Victoria(Vic) and TIV-Yamagata(Yam) in children 3–17 years of ...

Estimating Sensitivity of Laboratory Testing for Influenza in Canada through Modelling

Background The weekly proportion of laboratory tests that are positive for influenza is used in public health surveillance systems to identify periods of influenza activity. We aimed to estimate the sensitivity of influenza testing in Canada based on results of a national respiratory virus surveillance system. Methods and Findings The weekly number of influenza-negative tests from ...

Safety and Cross-Reactive Immunogenicity of Candidate AS03-Adjuvanted Prepandemic H5N1 Influenza Vaccines: A Randomized Controlled Phase 1/2 Trial in Adults

Background. The tocopherol-based oil-in-water emulsion adjuvant system family (AS03) improves antigen sparing with split-virion H5N1 influenza vaccines, representing an important development for pandemic preparedness. In this phase 1/2 randomized, controlled, observer-blinded study in 680 adults, we assessed the immunogenicity and safety of A/Indonesia/5/05 H5N1 (IBCDC-RG2, clade ...

Dose-Sparing H5N1 A/Indonesia/05/2005 Pre-pandemic Influenza Vaccine in Adults and Elderly Adults: A Phase III, Placebo-Controlled, Randomized Study

Background. Highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 viruses remain a threat to human health, with potential to become pandemic agents. Methods. This phase III, placebo-controlled, observer-blinded study evaluated the immunogenicity, cross-reactivity, safety, and lot consistency of 2 doses of oil-in-water (AS03A) adjuvanted H5N1 A/Indonesia/05/2005 (3.75 μg hemagglutinin antigen) ...

Empyema associated with community-acquired pneumonia: A Pediatric Investigator's Collaborative Network on Infections in Canada (PICNIC) study

Background Although the incidence of serious morbidity with childhood pneumonia has decreased over time, empyema as a complication of community-acquired pneumonia continues to be an important clinical problem. We reviewed the epidemiology and clinical management of empyema at 8 pediatric hospitals in a period before the widespread implementation of universal infant heptavalent ...

Racemic epinephrine compared to salbutamol in hospitalized young children with bronchiolitis; a randomized controlled clinical trial [ISRCTN46561076]

Background Bronchiolitis is the most common cause of lower respiratory tract illness in infancy, and hospital admission rates appear to be increasing in Canada and the United States. Inhaled beta agonists offer only modest short-term improvement. Trials of racemic epinephrine have shown conflicting results. We sought to determine if administration of racemic epinephrine during ...

Characteristics and outcome of infants with candiduria in neonatal intensive care - a Paediatric Investigators Collaborative Network on Infections in Canada (PICNIC) study

Background There is limited information in the literature on the presentation and prognosis of candidal urinary tract infection (UTI) in infants in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). Methods This was a prospective cohort study performed in 13 Canadian NICUs. Infants with candidal UTI without extra-renal candidal infection at presentation were enrolled. Results Thirty infants ...

Increasing Incidence of Hospitalization for Bronchiolitis among Canadian Children, 1980–2000

We evaluated temporal trends in hospitalization for bronchiolitis found among Canadian children for 1980–2000. The rate of hospital admission increased in all provinces over the 2 decades for all age groups but was highest in those aged <6 months. The mean length of stay decreased from 5.4 to 3.1 days (mean rate of decrease, 0.13 days/year; P<.0001). Because a concurrent increase ...

Effect of Inactivated Poliovirus Vaccine on the Antibody Response to Bordetella pertussis Antigens When Combined with Diphtheria-Pertussis-Tetanus Vaccine

To determine if inactivated poliovirus vaccine combined with diphtheria and tetanus toxoids and whole-cell pertussis vaccine interferes with the immunogenicity of pertussis vaccine, we performed a randomized trial of diphtheria and tetanus toxoids and pertussis vaccine combined with inactivated poliovirus vaccine given as a single injection or as two separate injections at the same ...

Paediatric Investigators Collaborative Network on Infections in Canada (PICNIC) study of aseptic meningitis

Background The seasonality, clinical and radiographic features and outcome of aseptic meningitis have been described for regional outbreaks but data from a wider geographic area is necessary to delineate the epidemiology of this condition. Methods A retrospective chart review was completed of children presenting with aseptic meningitis to eight Canadian pediatric hospitals over a ...

Safety and Immunogenicity of 26-Valent Group A Streptococcus Vaccine in Healthy Adult Volunteers

Background. Group A streptococcus (GAS) causes illness ranging from uncomplicated pharyngitis to life-threatening necrotizing fasciitis, toxic shock, and rheumatic fever. Attempts to develop an M protein–based vaccine have been hindered by the fact that some M proteins elicit both protective antibodies and antibodies that cross-react with human tissues. New molecular techniques ...