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Search: authors:"Johannes Löwer"

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Peroxiredoxin 6 promotes upregulation of the prion protein (PrP) in neuronal cells of prion-infected mice

Background It has been widely established that the conversion of the cellular prion protein (PrPC) into its abnormal isoform (PrPSc) is responsible for the development of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs). However, the knowledge of the detailed molecular mechanisms and direct functional consequences within the cell is rare. In this study, we aimed at the ...

Human endogenous retrovirus K (HML-2) RNA and protein expression is a marker for human embryonic and induced pluripotent stem cells

Background Malignant human embryonal carcinoma cells (ECCs) rely on similar transcriptional networks as non-malignant embryonic stem cells (ESCs) to control selfrenewal, maintain pluripotency, and inhibit differentiation. Because re-activation of silenced HERV-K(HML-2) loci is a hallmark of ECCs, we asked if this HERV group was also reactivated in ESCs and induced pluripotent stem ...

Quantitative phosphoproteomic analysis of prion-infected neuronal cells

Prion diseases or transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) are fatal diseases associated with the conversion of the cellular prion protein (PrPC) to the abnormal prion protein (PrPSc). Since the molecular mechanisms in pathogenesis are widely unclear, we analyzed the global phospho-proteome and detected a differential pattern of tyrosine- and threonine phosphorylated ...

Human LINE-1 restriction by APOBEC3C is deaminase independent and mediated by an ORF1p interaction that affects LINE reverse transcriptase activity

LINE-1 (L1) retrotransposons are mobile genetic elements whose extensive proliferation resulted in the generation of ∼34% of the human genome. They have been shown to be a cause of single-gene diseases. Moreover, L1-encoded endonuclease can elicit double-strand breaks that may lead to genomic instability. Mammalian cells adopted strategies restricting mobility and deleterious ...

The non-autonomous retrotransposon SVA is trans-mobilized by the human LINE-1 protein machinery

SINE-VNTR-Alu (SVA) elements are non-autonomous, hominid-specific non-LTR retrotransposons and distinguished by their organization as composite mobile elements. They represent the evolutionarily youngest, currently active family of human non-LTR retrotransposons, and sporadically generate disease-causing insertions. Since preexisting, genomic SVA sequences are characterized by ...

Leptin Receptor Isoform 219.1: An Example of Protein Evolution by LINE-1–Mediated Human-Specific Retrotransposition of a Coding SVA Element

Phylogenetically new insertions of repetitive sequences may contribute to genome evolution by altering the function of preexisting proteins. One example is the SVA sequence, which forms the C-terminal coding exon of the human leptin receptor isoform 219.1. Here, we report that the SVA insertion into the LEPR locus has occurred after divergence of humans and chimpanzees. The SVA ...

Paracrine Diffusion of PrPC and Propagation of Prion Infectivity by Plasma Membrane-Derived Microvesicles

Cellular prion protein (PrPc) is a physiological constituent of eukaryotic cells. The cellular pathways underlying prions spread from the sites of prions infection/peripheral replication to the central nervous system are still not elucidated. Membrane-derived microvesicles (MVs) are submicron (0.1–1 µm) particles, that are released by cells during plasma membrane shedding ...

MVA-Based H5N1 Vaccine Affords Cross-Clade Protection in Mice against Influenza A/H5N1 Viruses at Low Doses and after Single Immunization

Human infections with highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses of the H5N1 subtype, frequently reported since 2003, result in high morbidity and mortality. It is feared that these viruses become pandemic, therefore the development of safe and effective vaccines is desirable. MVA-based H5N1 vaccines already proved to be effective when two immunizations with high doses were used. ...

Postexposure Immunization with Modified Vaccinia Virus Ankara or Conventional Lister Vaccine Provides Solid Protection in a Murine Model of Human Smallpox

Background. Decades after the cessation of smallpox vaccination, the potential of the deliberate release of pathogenic orthopoxviruses has forced a reconsideration of using these extremely efficient human vaccines. Scenarios of sudden biothreats have prompted demand for rapidly protective vaccination. However, the feasibility of short-term vaccination (i.e., vaccination shortly ...

Hepatitis A Virus Infection in Tamarins: Experimental Transmission via Contaminated Factor VIII Concentrates

An experimental hepatitis A virus (HAV) transmission study was performed in 3 tamarins, using a factor VIII concentrate linked to a recent outbreak of HAV infections in German hemophiliacs. The typical indicators for HAV infection were investigated in feces and serum samples. One tamarin showed a classical HAV infection with seroconversion. HAV antigen and HAV RNA were detected in ...