Advanced search    

Search: authors:"John Wain"

29 papers found.
Use AND, OR, NOT, +word, -word, "long phrase", (parentheses) to fine-tune your search.

Neoadjuvant irinotecan, cisplatin, and concurrent radiation therapy with celecoxib for patients with locally advanced esophageal cancer

Background Patients with locally advanced esophageal cancer who are treated with trimodality therapy have a high recurrence rate. Preclinical evidence suggests that inhibition of cyclooxygenase 2 (COX2) increases the effectiveness of chemoradiation, and observational studies in humans suggest that COX-2 inhibition may reduce esophageal cancer risk. This trial tested the safety...

Enteroaggregative Escherichia coli Have Evolved Independently as Distinct Complexes within the E. coli Population with Varying Ability to Cause Disease

Enteroaggregative E. coli (EAEC) is an established diarrhoeagenic pathotype. The association with virulence gene content and ability to cause disease has been studied but little is known about the population structure of EAEC and how this pathotype evolved. Analysis by Multi Locus Sequence Typing of 564 EAEC isolates from cases and controls in Bangladesh, Nigeria and the UK...

Risk factors for the development of severe typhoid fever in Vietnam

Background Typhoid fever is a systemic infection caused by the bacterium Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi. Age, sex, prolonged duration of illness, and infection with an antimicrobial resistant organism have been proposed risk factors for the development of severe disease or fatality in typhoid fever. Methods We analysed clinical data from 581 patients consecutively admitted...

Evaluating the Use of Multilocus Variable Number Tandem Repeat Analysis of Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli O157 as a Routine Public Health Tool in England

Byrne Richard Elson Timothy J. Dallman Neil Perry Philip Ashton John Wain Goutam K. Adak Kathie A. Grant Claire Jenkins A. Mark Ibekwe, U. S. Salinity Lab, United States of America Multilocus variable

Immunological monitoring to prevent and treat sepsis

The clinical, human and economic burden associated with sepsis is huge. Initiatives such as the Surviving Sepsis Campaign aim to effectively reduce risk of death from severe sepsis and septic shock. Nonetheless, although substantial benefits raised from the implementation of this campaign have been obtained, much work remains if we are to realise the full potential promised by...

An Investigation of the Diversity of Strains of Enteroaggregative Escherichia coli Isolated from Cases Associated with a Large Multi-Pathogen Foodborne Outbreak in the UK

Following a large outbreak of foodborne gastrointestinal (GI) disease, a multiplex PCR approach was used retrospectively to investigate faecal specimens from 88 of the 413 reported cases. Gene targets from a range of bacterial GI pathogens were detected, including Salmonella species, Shigella species and Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli, with the majority (75%) of faecal...

A comparison of dense transposon insertion libraries in the Salmonella serovars Typhi and Typhimurium

, Brisbane, QLD 4072, Australia . A. Keith Turner, Discuva Ltd., 260 Cambridge Science Park , Milton Road, Cambridge , CB4 0WE, UK . John Wain, Norwich Medical School, University of East Anglia, NRP Innovation

Epidemiological Evidence That Garden Birds Are a Source of Human Salmonellosis in England and Wales

The importance of wild bird populations as a reservoir of zoonotic pathogens is well established. Salmonellosis is a frequently diagnosed infectious cause of mortality of garden birds in England and Wales, predominantly caused by Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serovar Typhimurium definitive phage types 40, 56(v) and 160. In Britain, these phage types are considered...

Rapid evolution of fluoroquinolone-resistant Escherichia coli in Nigeria is temporally associated with fluoroquinolone use

Background Antibiotic resistance has necessitated fluoroquinolone use but little is known about the selective forces and resistance trajectory in malaria-endemic settings, where selection from the antimalarial chloroquine for fluoroquinolone-resistant bacteria has been proposed. Methods Antimicrobial resistance was studied in fecal Escherichia coli isolates in a Nigerian...

Genomic Characterisation of Invasive Non-Typhoidal Salmonella enterica Subspecies enterica Serovar Bovismorbificans Isolates from Malawi

Background Invasive Non-typhoidal Salmonella (iNTS) are an important cause of bacteraemia in children and HIV-infected adults in sub-Saharan Africa. Previous research has shown that iNTS strains exhibit a pattern of gene loss that resembles that of host adapted serovars such as Salmonella Typhi and Paratyphi A. Salmonella enterica serovar Bovismorbificans was a common serovar in...

Multi-Locus Sequence Typing of Enteroaggregative Escherichia coli Isolates from Nigerian Children Uncovers Multiple Lineages

Background Enteroaggregative Escherichia coli (EAEC) are defined by their stacked-brick adherence pattern to human epithelial cells. There is no all-encompassing genetic marker for EAEC. The category is commonly implicated in diarrhea but research is hampered by perplexing heterogeneity. Methodology/Principal Findings To identify key EAEC lineages, we applied multilocus sequence...

Detecting SNPs and estimating allele frequencies in clonal bacterial populations by sequencing pooled DNA

Summary: Here, we present a method for estimating the frequencies of SNP alleles present within pooled samples of DNA using high-throughput short-read sequencing. The method was tested on real data from six strains of the highly monomorphic pathogen Salmonella Paratyphi A, sequenced individually and in a pool. A variety of read mapping and quality-weighting procedures were tested...

The Influence of Reduced Susceptibility to Fluoroquinolones in Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhi on the Clinical Response to Ofloxacin Therapy

Background Infection with Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi) with reduced susceptibility to fluoroquinolones has been associated with fluoroquinolone treatment failure. We studied the relationship between ofloxacin treatment response and the ofloxacin minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the infecting isolate. Individual patient data from seven randomised...

Multilocus Sequence Typing as a Replacement for Serotyping in Salmonella enterica

Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica is traditionally subdivided into serovars by serological and nutritional characteristics. We used Multilocus Sequence Typing (MLST) to assign 4,257 isolates from 554 serovars to 1092 sequence types (STs). The majority of the isolates and many STs were grouped into 138 genetically closely related clusters called eBurstGroups (eBGs). Many...

Comparative Analysis of ESBL-Positive Escherichia coli Isolates from Animals and Humans from the UK, The Netherlands and Germany

The putative virulence and antimicrobial resistance gene contents of extended spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-positive E. coli (n=629) isolated between 2005 and 2009 from humans, animals and animal food products in Germany, The Netherlands and the UK were compared using a microarray approach to test the suitability of this approach with regard to determining their similarities. A...

Changes in Causes of Acute Gastroenteritis in the United Kingdom Over 15 Years: Microbiologic Findings From 2 Prospective, Population-Based Studies of Infectious Intestinal Disease

6 Laura C. Rodrigues 2 John Wain 5 Bernard Wood 6 James J. Gray 5 7 the IID 1 Study Executive Committee 0 Health Protection Agency Regional Laboratory , Leeds 1 School of Translational Medicine

Emergence of a Globally Dominant IncHI1 Plasmid Type Associated with Multiple Drug Resistant Typhoid

Typhoid fever, caused by Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi), remains a serious global health concern. Since their emergence in the mid-1970s multi-drug resistant (MDR) S. Typhi now dominate drug sensitive equivalents in many regions. MDR in S. Typhi is almost exclusively conferred by self-transmissible IncHI1 plasmids carrying a suite of antimicrobial resistance genes...

International Spread of an Epidemic Population of Salmonella enterica Serotype Kentucky ST198 Resistant to Ciprofloxacin

(See the editorial commentary by Hedberg, on pages 665–6.) National Salmonella surveillance systems from France, England and Wales, Denmark, and the United States identified the recent emergence of multidrug-resistant isolates of Salmonella enterica serotype Kentucky displaying high-level resistance to ciprofloxacin. A total of 489 human cases were identified during the period...