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Indoor air pollution from secondhand tobacco smoke, solid fuels, and kerosene in homes with active tuberculosis disease in South Africa

Objectives Secondhand tobacco smoke (SHS), use of solid fuels, and kerosene may play an important role in perpetuating the tuberculosis (TB) epidemic. The purpose of this study was to explore the prevalence of household air pollution (HAP) from these sources in homes of someone with TB in a high HIV-prevalence setting. A convenience sample of homes and household members...

Tobacco Smoking and Tuberculosis among Men Living with HIV in Johannesburg, South Africa: A Case-Control Study

Setting Although there is ample evidence that smoking increases the risk of tuberculosis (TB), the magnitude of impact on TB risk among HIV-infected persons is poorly described. Given that a high proportion of patients with TB are co-infected with HIV in South Africa, the risks arising from the intersection of smoking, TB, and HIV/AIDS have key relevance for tobacco control...

How much is tuberculosis screening worth? Estimating the value of active case finding for tuberculosis in South Africa, China, and India

Background Current approaches are unlikely to achieve the aggressive global tuberculosis (TB) control targets set for 2035 and beyond. Active case finding (ACF) may be an important tool for augmenting existing strategies, but the cost-effectiveness of ACF remains uncertain. Program evaluators can often measure the cost of ACF per TB case detected, but how this accessible measure...

Commentary: George W. Comstock—Always a Teacher

Jonathan E. Golub ) 0 1 0 Department of Epidemiology, Bloomberg School of Public Health, Johns Hopkins University , Baltimore, MD 1 Department of Medicine, School of Medicine, Johns Hopkins

Active Case Finding of Tuberculosis (TB) in an Emergency Room in a Region with High Prevalence of TB in Brazil

Jonathan E. Golub 0 Marcus Barreto Conde 0 Oliver Schildgen, Kliniken der Stadt Ko ln gGmbH, Germany 0 1 Pulmonology Department, Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul - Hospital

Factors associated with tuberculosis by HIV status in the Brazilian national surveillance system: a cross sectional study

Background Over the last decade tuberculosis (TB) incidence and mortality in Brazil have been steadily declining. However, this downward trend has not been observed among HIV-infected patients. We describe the epidemiological and clinical profile of TB patients by HIV status using the Brazilian National Surveillance System. Methods All TB diagnoses with HIV status information...

The Impact of Expanded Testing for Multidrug Resistant Tuberculosis Using Geontype MTBDRplus in South Africa: An Observational Cohort Study

Introduction Globally, multidrug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) remains underdiagnosed. The Genotype MTBDRplus®, a rapid drug susceptibility testing (DST) assay used to detect resistance to isoniazid and rifampicin in the diagnosis of MDR-TB, has good diagnostic accuracy, but its impact on patient outcomes in routine practice is unproven. We assessed the clinical impact of...

Smoking and Risk of Tuberculosis Incidence, Mortality, and Recurrence in South Korean Men and Women

of Public Health, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland (Jonathan E. Golub); Department of Medicine, School of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland (Jonathan E. Golub ... by the Seoul Research and Business Development Program (grant 10526), Seoul, South Korea. Dr. Jonathan E. Golub was supported by National Institutes of Health grant AI066994. The authors thank the

A Comparative Analysis of Clinical and Molecular Factors with the Stage of Cervical Cancer in a Brazilian Cohort

Cell cycle protein expression plays an important role in the pathophysiology of cervical cancer. However, few studies have attempted to correlate the use of these biomarkers with the clinical progression of the tumor. Objectives 1) To analyze the expression of Ki-67, p53 and p16INK4a in cervical cancer, 2) to correlate the relative expression of these proteins as well as clinical...

Adherence to isoniazid prophylaxis among HIV-infected children: a randomized controlled trial comparing two dosing schedules

Background Tuberculosis contributes significantly to morbidity and mortality among HIV-infected children in sub-Saharan Africa. Isoniazid prophylaxis can reduce tuberculosis incidence in this population. However, for the treatment to be effective, adherence to the medication must be optimized. We investigated adherence to isoniazid prophylaxis administered daily, compared to...

Evaluation of MCM-2 Expression in TMA Cervical Specimens

Sergio M. Amaro-Filho Nathalia Oliveira Beatriz Grinsztejn Ruth Khalil Fabio Russomano Andrea Pires Jonathan E. Golub Gerard J. Nuovo Rupert Kaul, University of Toronto, Canada Background: Minichromosome

Impact and Cost-Effectiveness of Culture for Diagnosis of Tuberculosis in HIV-Infected Brazilian Adults

Background Culture of Mycobacterium tuberculosis currently represents the closest “gold standard” for diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB), but operational data are scant on the impact and cost-effectiveness of TB culture for human immunodeficiency (HIV-) infected individuals in resource-limited settings. Methodology/Principal Findings We recorded costs, laboratory results, and dates...

AIDS-Related Tuberculosis in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

Background We studied the incidence of tuberculosis, AIDS, AIDS deaths and AIDS-TB co-infection at the population level in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil where universal and free access to combination antiretroviral therapy has been available since 1997. Methodology/Principal Findings This was a retrospective surveillance database match of Rio de Janeiro databases from 1995–2004...

Validation of a Hierarchical Deterministic Record-Linkage Algorithm Using Data From 2 Different Cohorts of Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Persons and Mortality Databases in Brazil

Jonathan E. Golub Bonnie King Mauro Schechter Lee H. Harrison Loss to follow-up is a major source of bias in cohorts of patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and could lead to underestimation of ... , Baltimore, Maryland (Richard E. Chaisson, Jonathan E. Golub, Bonnie King); Instituto de Pesquisa Evandro Chagas–Fundaxca˜o Oswaldo Cruz, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil (Solange C. Cavalcante); and AIDS Research