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The silhouette technique: improving post-operative radiographs for planning of correction with a hexapod external fixator

Correction of deformity of a bone through use of a hexapod external fixator requires clear definition of the relationship between the bone and the frame. Achieving adequate orthogonal calibrated radiographs for this aim, with minimum X-ray exposure, can prove a challenge in the radiography suite. We describe a simple technique for obtaining adequate imaging, without the use of ...

Subfunctionalization of peroxisome proliferator response elements accounts for retention of duplicated fabp1 genes in zebrafish

Background In the duplication-degeneration-complementation (DDC) model, a duplicated gene has three possible fates: it may lose functionality through the accumulation of mutations (nonfunctionalization), acquire a new function (neofunctionalization), or each duplicate gene may retain a subset of functions of the ancestral gene (subfunctionalization). The role that promoter ...

Using Patient-Level Data to Develop Meaningful Cross-Trial Comparisons of Visual Impairment in Individuals with Diabetic Macular Edema

, Switzerland. Franck Fajnkuchen is a consultant for Allergan, Bayer and Novartis. Jonathan Wright is an employee of Numerus Ltd, Wokingham, UK. Numerus Ltd was paid by Novartis to conduct analyses for this

Honest begging: signals of need, quality, and/or hunger?

Elgar for inviting this commentary article. Address correspondence to Jonathan Wright. E-mail: jonathan. . Briskie JV, Naugler CT, Leech SM. 1994. Begging intensity of nestling birds varies with sibling

Efficacy of Anti-VEGF and Laser Photocoagulation in the Treatment of Visual Impairment due to Diabetic Macular Edema: A Systematic Review and Network Meta-Analysis

the United States of America and Novartis Pharma AG. funded this study. Jonathan Wright is an employee of Numerus Ltd. Numerus Ltd was paid to conduct analyses for this manuscript. There are no further

Parental behavior exhibits among-individual variance, plasticity, and heterogeneous residual variance

Phenotypic variance should have a hierarchical structure because differences arise between species, between individuals within species, and, for labile phenotypes, also within individuals across circumstances. Within-individual variance could exist because of responses to variable environments (plasticity) or because exhibiting variance per se has fitness consequences. To evolve, ...

Care for kin: within-group relatedness and allomaternal care are positively correlated and conserved throughout the mammalian phylogeny

Michael Briga Ido Pen Jonathan Wright Articles on similar topics can be found in the following collections: behaviour (766 articles) evolution (794 articles) Receive free email alerts when new

Simultaneous bicompartmental bucket handle meniscal tears with a clinically competent Anterior Cruciate Ligament

Bucket handle meniscal tears (BHMT) of the knee occur infrequently (approximately 10% of meniscal injuries). Simultaneous, bicompartmental BHMT are extremely rare. Previously, these have only been reported in association with a ruptured anterior cruciate ligament (ACL). The pathomechanism of this injury was thought to be due to the lack of knee stability following the ACL injury. ...

Social class influences degree of variance sensitivity in wild Siberian jays

Variance sensitivity theory predicts that optimal foragers should take into account not only the mean but also the variance in rewards offered by alternative foraging options. Whereas a positive energy budget should favor variance aversion, a negative one should favor variance-prone choices. The risk of starvation is the most obvious fitness threshold that can select for ...

Rich Pickings Near Large Communal Roosts Favor ‘Gang’ Foraging by Juvenile Common Ravens, Corvus corax

Ravens (Corvus corax) feed primarily on rich but ephemeral carcasses of large animals, which are usually defended by territorial pairs of adults. Non-breeding juveniles forage socially and aggregate in communal winter roosts, and these appear to function as ‘information centers’ regarding the location of the rare food bonanzas: individuals search independently of one another and ...

Parent–offspring conflict and co-adaptation: behavioural ecology meets quantitative genetics

The evolution of the complex and dynamic behavioural interactions between caring parents and their dependent offspring is a major area of research in behavioural ecology and quantitative genetics. While behavioural ecologists examine the evolution of interactions between parents and offspring in the light of parent–offspring conflict and its resolution, quantitative geneticists ...

Integration of mate pair sequences to improve shotgun assemblies of flow-sorted chromosome arms of hexaploid wheat

Background The assembly of the bread wheat genome sequence is challenging due to allohexaploidy and extreme repeat content (>80%). Isolation of single chromosome arms by flow sorting can be used to overcome the polyploidy problem, but the repeat content cause extreme assembly fragmentation even at a single chromosome level. Long jump paired sequencing data (mate pairs) can help ...

Evolutionary and ecological approaches to the study of personality

This introduction to the themed issue on Evolutionary and ecological approaches to the study of personality provides an overview of conceptual, theoretical and methodological progress in research on animal personalities over the last decade, and places the contributions to this volume in context. The issue has three main goals. First, we aimed to bring together theoreticians to ...

Painting the chromosomes of Brachypodium—current status and future prospects

Chromosome painting is one of the most powerful and spectacular tools of modern molecular cytogenetics, enabling complex analyses of nuclear genome structure and evolution. For many years, this technique was restricted to the study of mammalian chromosomes, as it failed to work in plant genomes due mainly to the presence of large amounts of repetitive DNA common to all the ...

Facultative adjustment of pre-fledging mass loss by nestling swifts preparing for flight

Nestling birds often maintain nutritional reserves to ensure continual growth during interruptions in parental provisioning. However, mass-dependent flight costs require the loss of excess mass before fledging. Here we test whether individual variable mass loss prior to fledging is controlled through facultative adjustments by nestlings, or whether it reflects physiologically ...

Helping effort increases with relatedness in bell miners, but ‘unrelated’ helpers of both sexes still provide substantial care

Jonathan Wright Paul G. McDonald Luc te Marvelde Anahita J. N. Kazem Charles M. Bishop 0 Department of Zoology, La Trobe University , Bundoora, Victoria 3086, Australia 1 School of Biological

Improvdent: Improving dentures for patient benefit. A crossover randomised clinical trial comparing impression materials for complete dentures

Background According to the UK Adult Dental Health Survey (2009) 15% of adults aged 65–74, 30% aged 75–84 and 47% aged >85 years are edentulous and require complete dentures. Patients’ quality of life and nutrition status are affected by poor dentures. The quality of the dental impression is the most important issue for improving the fit and comfort of new dentures. There is ...

Helping as a signal: does removal of potential audiences alter helper behavior in the bell miner?

Despite many studies on the evolution of cooperative breeding and helping at the nest, relatively few have explored the possibility that helping functions as a signal to gain social advantage within groups (the “pay to stay” and “social prestige” hypotheses). One of the most promising candidates for such a signaling system is the cooperatively breeding bell miner, Manorina ...

Helper contributions to antiparasite behavior in the cooperatively breeding bell miner

Cooperatively breeding bell miners (Manorina melanophrys) have numerous male helpers assisting at multiple nests. Helpers are often related to the brood they aid, consistent with kin selection. However, there are also unrelated helpers for which other direct fitness benefits are likely to accrue. Bell miner nestlings can become infested by the larvae of a parasitic fly (Passeromyia ...

An Integrated Physical, Genetic and Cytogenetic Map of Brachypodium distachyon, a Model System for Grass Research

The pooid subfamily of grasses includes some of the most important crop, forage and turf species, such as wheat, barley and Lolium. Developing genomic resources, such as whole-genome physical maps, for analysing the large and complex genomes of these crops and for facilitating biological research in grasses is an important goal in plant biology. We describe a bacterial artificial ...