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PBDE flame retardants, thyroid disease, and menopausal status in U.S. women

Background Women have elevated rates of thyroid disease compared to men. Environmental toxicants have been implicated as contributors to this dimorphism, including polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), flame retardant chemicals that disrupt thyroid hormone action. PBDEs have also been implicated in the disruption of estrogenic activity, and estrogen levels regulate thyroid...

Role of rg-sg in forgetting

The role of the rg-sg mechanism in forgetting is explored in an experimental arrangement whereby rg eliciting cues can be experimentally manipulated during the retention interval. If such cues are absent, thereby maintaining the strength of rg, retention is perfect. If such cues are present, thereby eliciting and thus extinguishing rg, retention shows a decrement.

Perfect retention of an instrumental response

Retention tests for the running response after 27 days revealed a typical decrement for terminal speeds. Running speeds, however, showed no decrement. The difference between these data and previous data showing a decrement are analyzed in terms of the drive maintenance schedule in relation to the role of the rg - sg mechanism.