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23 papers found.
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Genetic markers associated with resistance to beta-lactam and quinolone antimicrobials in non-typhoidal Salmonella isolates from humans and animals in central Ethiopia

Background Beta-lactam and quinolone antimicrobials are commonly used for treatment of infections caused by non-typhoidal Salmonella (NTS) and other pathogens. Resistance to these classes of antimicrobials has increased significantly in the recent years. However, little is known on the genetic basis of resistance to these drugs in Salmonella isolates from Ethiopia. Methods ...

‘People say that we are already dead much as we can still walk’: a qualitative investigation of community and couples’ understanding of HIV serodiscordance in rural Uganda

Background Stable, co-habiting HIV serodiscordant couples are a key population in terms of heterosexual transmission in sub-Saharan Africa. Despite the wide availability of antiretroviral treatment and HIV educational programs, heterosexual transmission continues to drive the HIV epidemic in Africa. To investigate some of the factors involved in transmission or maintenance of ...

Effect of Couples Counselling on Reported HIV Risk Behaviour among HIV Serodiscordant Couples by ART Use, HIV Status and Gender in Rural Uganda

Background We examined several measures of self-reported HIV risk behaviour in mutually disclosed sero-discordant couples over time to see if a couples counselling intervention was associated with changes in these behaviors. Methods We analysed data from a prospective cohort study of HIV sero-discordant couples in Jinja, Uganda collected between June 2009 and December 2011. ...

Adherence to Antiretroviral Therapy in Jinja, Uganda: A Six-Year Follow-Up Study

IntroductionWe report on the adherence experience of a group of people living with HIV on ART over six years in Uganda. MethodsBetween 2005 and 2009, we followed up 41 participants who were also part of a clinical trial comparing home and facility based delivery of ART in Jinja, eastern Uganda. We conducted qualitative in-depth interviews at enrolment, 3, 6, 18 and 30 months to ...

A new strategy and its effect on adherence to intermittent preventive treatment of malaria in pregnancy in Uganda

Anthony K Mbonye 0 Stephanie Yanow Josephine Birungi Pascal Magnussen 0 School of Public Health, College of Health Sciences, Makerere University & Commissioner Health Services, Ministry of Health

Prescription patterns and drug use among pregnant women with febrile Illnesses in Uganda: a survey in out-patient clinics

Background Malaria is a public health problem in Uganda; affecting mainly women and children. Effective treatment has been hampered by over-diagnosis and over-treatment with anti-malarial drugs among patients presenting with fever. In order to understand the effect of drug pressure on sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) resistance in pregnancy, a sample of pregnant women presenting with ...

Contrasting Plasmodium infection rates and insecticide susceptibility profiles between the sympatric sibling species Anopheles parensis and Anopheles funestus s.s: a potential challenge for malaria vector control in Uganda

Background Although the An. funestus group conceals one of the major malaria vectors in Africa, little is known about the dynamics of members of this group across the continent. Here, we investigated the species composition, infection rate and susceptibility to insecticides of this species group in Uganda. Methods Indoor resting blood-fed Anopheles adult female mosquitoes were ...

Lack of Effectiveness of Antiretroviral Therapy in Preventing HIV Infection in Serodiscordant Couples in Uganda: An Observational Study

Background We examined the real-world effectiveness of ART as an HIV prevention tool among HIV serodiscordant couples in a programmatic setting in a low-income country. Methods We enrolled individuals from HIV serodiscordant couples aged ≥18 years of age in Jinja, Uganda from June 2009 – June 2011. In one group of couples the HIV positive partner was receiving ART as they met ...

Stigma trajectories among people living with HIV (PLHIV) embarking on a life time journey with antiretroviral drugs in Jinja, Uganda

Background Stigma is a barrier to HIV prevention and treatment. There is a limited understanding of the types of stigma facing people living with HIV (PLHIV) on antiretroviral therapy (ART). We describe the stigma trajectories of PLHIV over a 5-year period from the time they started ART. Methods Longitudinal qualitative in-depth interviews were conducted with 41 members of The AIDS ...

Widespread Pyrethroid and DDT Resistance in the Major Malaria Vector Anopheles funestus in East Africa Is Driven by Metabolic Resistance Mechanisms

Background Establishing the extent, geographical distribution and mechanisms of insecticide resistance in malaria vectors is a prerequisite for resistance management. Here, we report a widespread distribution of insecticide resistance in the major malaria vector An. funestus across Uganda and western Kenya under the control of metabolic resistance mechanisms. Methodology/Principal ...

Engaging Men in Prevention and Care for HIV/AIDS in Africa

Ed Mills and colleagues argue that a more balanced approach to gender is needed so that both men and women are involved in HIV treatment and prevention.

Changes in sexual desires and behaviours of people living with HIV after initiation of ART: Implications for HIV prevention and health promotion

Background As immune compromised HIV sero-positive people regain health after initiating antiretroviral treatment (ART), they may seek a return to an active 'normal' life, including sexual activity. The aim of the paper is to explore the changing sexual desires and behaviour of people on ART in Uganda over a 30 month period. Methods This study employed longitudinal qualitative ...

Gendered sexual risk patterns and polygamy among HIV sero-discordant couples in Uganda

Birungi 0 Rachel King 0 Kate Shannon 0 0 Aids Support Organization (Taso) Uganda , Jinja , Uganda 2012 Khanakwa et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the

Density of Healthcare Providers and Patient Outcomes: Evidence from a Nationally Representative Multi-Site HIV Treatment Program in Uganda

Objective We examined the association between density of healthcare providers and patient outcomes using a large nationally representative cohort of patients receiving combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) in Uganda. Design We obtained data from The AIDS Support Organization (TASO) in Uganda. Patients 18 years of age and older who initiated cART at TASO between 2004 and 2008 ...

Male gender predicts mortality in a large cohort of patients receiving antiretroviral therapy in Uganda

Background Because men in Africa are less likely to access HIV/AIDS care than women, we aimed to determine if men have differing outcomes from women across a nationally representative sample of adult patients receiving combination antiretroviral therapy in Uganda. Methods We estimated survival distributions for adult male and female patients using Kaplan-Meier, and constructed ...

A lab-on-chip for malaria diagnosis and surveillance

Background Access to timely and accurate diagnostic tests has a significant impact in the management of diseases of global concern such as malaria. While molecular diagnostics satisfy this need effectively in developed countries, barriers in technology, reagent storage, cost and expertise have hampered the introduction of these methods in developing countries. In this study a ...

Survival of HIV-Infected Adolescents on Antiretroviral Therapy in Uganda: Findings from a Nationally Representative Cohort in Uganda

Background Adolescents have been identified as a high-risk group for poor adherence to and defaulting from combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) care. However, data on outcomes for adolescents on cART in resource-limited settings remain scarce. Methods We developed an observational study of patients who started cART at The AIDS Service Organization (TASO) in Uganda between 2004 ...

Mortality and loss-to-follow-up during the pre-treatment period in an antiretroviral therapy programme under normal health service conditions in Uganda

and Jonathan Levin did the statistical analysis. Josephine Birungi was responsible for recruitment of subjects and patient management. Christine Nabiryo and Alex Coutinho had the original idea and

Equivalence of ELISpot Assays Demonstrated between Major HIV Network Laboratories

Background The Comprehensive T Cell Vaccine Immune Monitoring Consortium (CTC-VIMC) was created to provide standardized immunogenicity monitoring services for HIV vaccine trials. The ex vivo interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) ELISpot is used extensively as a primary immunogenicity assay to assess T cell-based vaccine candidates in trials for infectious diseases and cancer. Two independent, ...

MITOCHONDRIAL CYTOCHROME B VARIATION IN POPULATIONS OF THE VISCERAL LEISHMANIASIS VECTOR LUTZOMYIA LONGIPALPIS ACROSS EASTERN BRAZIL

A population analysis of peridomestic, light-trapped, field specimens of the phlebotomine sand fly Lutzomyia longipalpis was targeted to six locations representing a geographic transect across eastern Brazil. Mitochondrial cytochrome b gene sequences established the pattern of genetic variation among the populations. Alignment of a 261-basepair region at the 3′end of cytochrome b ...