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Transcriptome-Wide Analysis Reveals the Role of PPARγ Controlling the Lipid Metabolism in Goat Mammary Epithelial Cells

To explore the large-scale effect of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPARG) in goat mammary epithelial cells (GMEC), an oligonucleotide microarray platform was used for transcriptome profiling in cells overexpressing PPARG and incubated with or without rosiglitazone (ROSI, a PPARγ agonist). A total of 1143 differentially expressed genes (DEG) due to treatment were...

Alterations in Hepatic FGF21, Co-Regulated Genes, and Upstream Metabolic Genes in Response to Nutrition, Ketosis and Inflammation in Peripartal Holstein Cows

In rodents, fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) has emerged as a key metabolic regulator produced by liver. To gather preliminary data on the potential importance of FGF1, co-regulated genes, and upstream metabolic genes, we examined the hepatic mRNA expression in response to nutrition and inflammation in dairy cows. In experiment 1, induction of ketosis through feed restriction...

Immunometabolic Status during the Peripartum Period Is Enhanced with Supplemental Zn, Mn, and Cu from Amino Acid Complexes and Co from Co Glucoheptonate

The peripartum (or transition) period is the most-critical phase in the productive life of lactating dairy cows and optimal supply of trace minerals through more bioavailable forms could minimize the negative effects associated with this phase. Twenty Holstein cows received a common prepartal diet and postpartal diet. Both diets were partially supplemented with an inorganic (INO...

Digital Cushion Fatty Acid Composition and Lipid Metabolism Gene Network Expression in Holstein Dairy Cows Fed a High-Energy Diet

The hoof digital cushion is a complex structure composed of adipose tissue beneath the distal phalanx, i.e. axial, middle and abaxial fat pad. The major role of these fat depots is dampening compression of the corium underneath the cushion. The study aimed to determine expression of target genes and fatty acid profiles in the hoof of non-pregnant dry Holstein cows fed low (CON...

Maternal Plane of Nutrition during Late Gestation and Weaning Age Alter Angus × Simmental Offspring Longissimus Muscle Transcriptome and Intramuscular Fat

In model organisms both the nutrition of the mother and the young offspring could induce long-lasting transcriptional changes in tissues. In livestock, such changes could have important roles in determining nutrient use and meat quality. The main objective was to evaluate if plane of maternal nutrition during late-gestation and weaning age alter the offspring’s Longissimus muscle...

Hepatic Metabolic, Inflammatory, and Stress-Related Gene Expression in Growing Mice Consuming a Low Dose of Trans-10, cis-12-Conjugated Linoleic Acid

Dietary trans-10, cis-12-conjugated linoleic acid (trans-10, cis-12-CLA) fed to obese and nonobese rodents reduces body fat but leads to greater liver mass due to steatosis. The molecular mechanisms accompanying such responses remain largely unknown. Our study investigated the effects of chronic low trans-10, cis-12-CLA supplementation on hepatic expression of 39 genes related to...

Insulin Sensitivity in Adipose and Skeletal Muscle Tissue of Dairy Cows in Response to Dietary Energy Level and 2,4-Thiazolidinedione (TZD)

The effects of dietary energy level and 2,4-thiazolidinedione (TZD) injection on feed intake, body fatness, blood biomarkers and TZD concentrations, genes related to insulin sensitivity in adipose tissue (AT) and skeletal muscle, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARG) protein in subcutaneous AT (SAT) were evaluated in Holstein cows. Fourteen nonpregnant...

Physiological and Nutritional Roles of PPAR across Species

therapeutic roles through nutrition. Massimo Bionaz Gary J. Hausman Juan J. Loor Stéphane Mandard References A. Yessoufou and W. Wahli, “Multifaceted roles of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors

Functional Role of PPARs in Ruminants: Potential Targets for Fine-Tuning Metabolism during Growth and Lactation

Characterization and biological roles of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) isotypes are well known in monogastrics, but not in ruminants. However, a wealth of information has accumulated in little more than a decade on ruminant PPARs including isotype tissue distribution, response to synthetic and natural agonists, gene targets, and factors affecting their...

Integrative Analyses of Hepatic Differentially Expressed Genes and Blood Biomarkers during the Peripartal Period between Dairy Cows Overfed or Restricted-Fed Energy Prepartum

Using published dairy cattle liver transcriptomics dataset along with novel blood biomarkers of liver function, metabolism, and inflammation we have attempted an integrative systems biology approach applying the classical functional enrichment analysis using DAVID, a newly-developed Dynamic Impact Approach (DIA), and an upstream gene network analysis using Ingenuity Pathway...

Gene networks driving bovine milk fat synthesis during the lactation cycle

Background The molecular events associated with regulation of milk fat synthesis in the bovine mammary gland remain largely unknown. Our objective was to study mammary tissue mRNA expression via quantitative PCR of 45 genes associated with lipid synthesis (triacylglycerol and phospholipids) and secretion from the late pre-partum/non-lactating period through the end of subsequent...

A Novel Dynamic Impact Approach (DIA) for Functional Analysis of Time-Course Omics Studies: Validation Using the Bovine Mammary Transcriptome

The overrepresented approach (ORA) is the most widely-accepted method for functional analysis of microarray datasets. The ORA is computationally-efficient and robust; however, it suffers from the inability of comparing results from multiple gene lists particularly with time-course experiments or those involving multiple treatments. To overcome such limitation a novel method...

iTRAQ-proteomics and bioinformatics analyses of mammary tissue from cows with clinical mastitis due to natural infection with Staphylococci aureus

Background Proteomics and bioinformatics may help us better understand the biological adaptations occurring during bovine mastitis. This systems approach also could help identify biomarkers for monitoring clinical and subclinical mastitis. The aim of the present study was to use isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ) to screen potential proteins associated...

Trans-10, cis 12-Conjugated Linoleic Acid-Induced Milk Fat Depression Is Associated with Inhibition of PPAR Signaling and Inflammation in Murine Mammary Tissue

Grants, University of Maryland, College Park, MD, USA (to Richard A. Erdman, Liliana S. Piperova, Juan J. Loor, and Anil K. G. Kadegowda), and Pennfield Graduate Research Award by Pennfield Corporation ... , under Hatch Projects ILLU-538-307 and ILLU-538-391 (both to Juan J. Loor). References A. K. G. Kadegowda, E. E. Connor, B. B. Teter et al., “Dietary trans fatty acid isomers differ in their effects on

Old and New Stories: Revelations from Functional Analysis of the Bovine Mammary Transcriptome during the Lactation Cycle

The cow mammary transcriptome was explored at −30, −15, 1, 15, 30, 60, 120, 240, and 300 d relative to parturition. A total of 6,382 differentially expressed genes (DEG) at a false discovery rate ≤0.001 were found throughout lactation. The greatest number of DEG (>3,500 DEG) was observed at 60 and 120 d vs. −30 d with the largest change between consecutive time points observed at...

Functional annotation of novel lineage-specific genes using co-expression and promoter analysis

Background The diversity of placental architectures within and among mammalian orders is believed to be the result of adaptive evolution. Although, the genetic basis for these differences is unknown, some may arise from rapidly diverging and lineage-specific genes. Previously, we identified 91 novel lineage-specific transcripts (LSTs) from a cow term-placenta cDNA library, which...

In Vitro Culture and Characterization of a Mammary Epithelial Cell Line from Chinese Holstein Dairy Cow

Background The objective of this study was to establish a culture system and elucidate the unique characteristics of a bovine mammary epithelial cell line in vitro. Methodology Mammary tissue from a three year old lactating dairy cow (ca. 100 d relative to parturition) was used as a source of the epithelial cell line, which was cultured in collagen-coated tissue culture dishes...